Bufo verrucosissimus (Pallas, 1814)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Bufo > Species: Bufo verrucosissimus

Rana verrucosissimus Pallas, 1814 "1831", Zoograph. Rosso-Asiat. Sist. Omn. Animal.: 15. Type(s): Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: Kaukasus.

Bufo colchicus Eichwald, 1831, Zool. Special.: 167. Types: Not stated or known to exist. Type locality: "in Colchide" (= Cochis at the Black Sea shore of the Caucasus). Synonymy with Bufo bufo sensu lato by Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 125 (as Bufo vulgaris); Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 569; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 303. Synonymy with Bufo verrucosissimus by Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 239.

Bufo caucasicusMénétriés, 1832, Cat. Raisonne Objets Zool. Voy. Caucase et Perse: 74.

Bufo cinereus var. colchicaEichwald, 1842, Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 7: 160.

Bufo bufo turowi Krasovsky, 1933, Izvestia Vtorogo Severo-Kavkazkogo Pedagogicheskogo Institute, Vladikavkaz, 10: 90-91. Holotype: ZMM, lost according to Dunayev and Orlova, 1994, Russ. J. Herpetol., 1: 63, although 3 paratypes remain in the ZMM. Type locality: Chernorechenskii dordon of Caucasus reserve (Krasnodar region, Russia); near falling of Urushten river into M. Laba. Synonymy by Orlova and Tuniyev, 1989, Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prirody, 94: 13-24. Distinctiveness of this nominal taxon rejected by Litvinchuk, Borkin, Skorinov, and Rosanov, 2008, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 38.

Bufo bufo verrucosissimaTerentjev and Chernov, 1936, Brief Guide Amph. Rept. USSR: 24; Tuniyev and Beregovaya, 1987 "1986", in Anajeva and Borkin (eds.), Sistematika i ekologiia amfibii i reptilii: 136; Tuniyev and Beregovaya, 1987 "1986", in Anajeva and Borkin (eds.), Sistematika i ekologiia amfibii i reptilii: 136.

Bufo verrucosissimus verrucosissimusOrlova and Tuniyev, 1989, Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prirody, 94: 15.

Bufo verrucosissimus turowiOrlova and Tuniyev, 1989, Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prirody, 94: 16.

Bufo verrucosissimus circassicus Orlova and Tuniyev, 1989, Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prirody, 94: 20. Holotype: ZMM A-2267, by original designation. Type locality: Stanistsa Krepostnaya, Krasnodar region, Russia, 40 km from Krasnodar. Distinctiveness of this nominal taxon rejected by Litvinchuk, Borkin, Skorinov, and Rosanov, 2008, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 38.

Bufo verrucosissimus turoviDunayev and Orlova, 1994, Russ. J. Herpetol., 1: 63. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Bufo verrucosissimus tertyschnikovi Kidov, 2009, Nauchnye Issledov. Zool. Parkakh, 25: 174. Holotype: ZMMU A-4265, by original designation. Type locality: stanitsa Novoekaterinovskaya, Shpakovskiy district, Stavropol Region, Russia. 

Bufo (Bufo) verrucosissimusDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

Bufo (Bufo) verrucosissimus verrucosissimusDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

Bufo (Bufo) verrucosissimus circassicusDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

Bufo (Bufo) verrucosissimus turowiDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

English Names

Caucasus Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 44).

Caucasian Common Toad (Tuniyev, 1999, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 3: 51).

Caucasian Toad (Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 238; Tarkhnishvili and Gokhelashvili, 1999, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 4: v).

Distribution

Western part of Caucasus Mountains of southern Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and extending into northeastern Turkey (Artvin Province); isolated population on Strizhament Mountain and forests in the middle part of of Kuban River Valley from stanitsa Barsukovskaya to stanitsa Uspenskaya, Russia; southern coastal region of Turkey from eastern Antalya Province in isolated populations into western coastal Syria and Lebanon.

Comment

Borkin, 1987, Trudy Zool. Inst. Akad. Nauk SSSR, Leningrad, 158: 47-58, first suggested that Bufo verrucosissimus is a distinct species from Bufo bufo, but he did not make the change. See Orlova and Tuniyev, 1989, Byull. Mosk. Obshch. Ispyt. Prirody, 94: 13-24, for subspecies and taxonomic discussion. See Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 238–245, who noted that Bufo verrucosissimus verrucosissimus and Bufo verrucosissimus circassicus met in a narrow hybrid zone. Kuzmin, 2013, Amph. Former Soviet Union, Ed. 2: 139–143, provided an account for the former USSR. Litvinchuk, Borkin, Skorinov, and Rosanov, 2008, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 19–43, rejected subspecies. Tosunoglu and Taskavak, 2001, Ital. J. Zool., 68: 165-168, considered specimens from Turkey as Bufo bufo verrucosissimus and not distinguishable immunologically from Bufo bufo spinosus. Tuniyev, 1999, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 3: 51-52, discussed the taxonomic history of this species as well as geographic variation. Baloutch and Kami, 1995, Amph. Iran: 128-130, provided an account (as Bufo bufo verrucosissima) for Iran. See comments under Bufo bufo. Litvinchuk, Borkin, Skorinov, and Rosanov, 2008, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 19–43, redelimited that species range by including western Turkish populations formerly referred to Bufo bufo spinosus (now assigned to Bufo bufo). Recuero, Canestrelli, Vörös, Szabó, Poyarkov, Arntzen, Crnobrnja-Isailovic, Kidov, Cogǎlniceanu, Caputo, Nascetti, and Martínez-Solano, 2012, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 62: 71–86, reported on the molecular phylogenetics and phylogeography of the species. Arntzen, Recuero, Canestrelli, and Martínez-Solano, 2013, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 69: 1203–1208, discussed the phylogenetics and species taxonomy of this and near relatives and conclused that Bufo verrucosissimus is a distinct species. See comments under Bufo bufo and Bufo spinosus for additional relevant comments. Nöllert, Grosse, Buschendorf, and Geiger, 2016, Mertensiella, 24: 7–32, summarized and discussed the taxonomic history of this species and its recognition within the Bufo bufo group and provided a range map. On the basis of mtDNA analysis, Jablonski and Sadek, 2019, Herpetozoa, Wien, 32: 255–258, assigned the populations of Syria and Lebanon to this species. See Dufresnes, 2019, Amph. Eur., N. Afr., & Middle East: 75, for brief summary of identifying morphology and biology, a range map (seemingly excluding the northern and southern coasts of Turkey as well as Lebanon and Syria), as well as a photograph. Özdemir, Dursun, Üzüm, Kutrup, and Gül, 2020, Amphibia-Reptilia, 41: 399–411, reported on distribution within Turkey on the basis of mt and nu DNA markers as well as morphology. Older records from southern Azerbaijan and northern Iran now assigned to Bufo eichwaldi

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