Paradactylodon mustersi (Smith, 1940)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Caudata > Family: Hynobiidae > Subfamily: Hynobiinae > Genus: Paradactylodon > Species: Paradactylodon mustersi

Batrachuperus mustersi Smith, 1940, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 11, 5: 382. Holotype: BMNH 1940.3.1.1, by original designation, now renumbered BMNH 1946.9.6.59 (originally 1940.3.11) according to Brame, 1972, Checklist Living & Fossil Salamand. World (Unpubl. MS): 2, and museum records. Type locality: "mountain streams of the Paghman Range, above Paghman [=17 mi. W Kabul], at between 9000 and 10,000 feet altitude", Afghanistan.

Paradactylodon mustersiZhang, Chen, Zhou, Liu, Wang, Papenfuss, Wake, and Qu, 2006, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 103: 7364; Zheng, Peng, Kuro-o, and Zeng, 2011, Mol. Biol. Evol., 28: 2521–2535. 

Afghanodon mustersiDubois and Raffaëlli, 2012, Alytes, 28: 77–161; Dubois, Ohler, and Pyron, 2021, Megataxa, 5: 407. 

English Names

Paghman Mountain Salamander (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 28).

Afghanistan Mountain Salamander (Sparreboom, 2014, Salamanders Old World: 126).


Paghman Range above Paghman, Gardan Diwal in Koh-i-Baba Massif, Salang Pass to northeast of Kabul, Sanglach in Maidan Province and probably Dasht-i-Nawar, Afghanistan, 2750–3050 m elevation.


See Mertens, 1970, Aquar. Terrar. Z., 11: 346–348, Reilly, 1983, J. Herpetol., 17: 1–9, Böhme, 1982, Elaphe, 2: 33–36, Thorn and Raffaëlli, 2000, Salamand. Ancien Monde: 119–121, and Raffaëlli, 2007, Les Urodèles du Monde: 57–58, for accounts. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status (as Batrachuperus mustersi) in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 548.See Zheng, Peng, Kuro-o, and Zeng, 2011, Mol. Biol. Evol., 28: 2521–2535, for demonstration that Iranodon and Afghanodon are sister species and placed in ParadactylodonRaffaëlli, 2013, Urodeles du Monde, 2nd ed.: 53–54, provided a brief account, photo, and range map. Sparreboom, 2014, Salamanders Old World: 126–128, reviewed the biology, characteristics, distribution, reproduction, and conservation of the species, as Paradactylodon mustersi. See localities and range map for Afghanistan by Wagner, Bauer, Leviton, Wilms, and Böhme, 2016, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 63: 457–565. Ahmadzadeh, Shahrokhi, Saberi-Pirooz, Oladi, Taati, Poyarkov, and Rödder, 2020, Amphibia-Reptilia, 41: 519–534, reported on comparative morphology, molecular phylogeography, and biogeography.

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