Rhinella scitula (Caramaschi and Niemeyer, 2003)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella scitula

Bufo levicristatus Boettger, 1885, Z. Naturwiss., Halle, 58: 246. Types: 3 specimens (presumably originally SMF), by original designation. These specimen lost according to Axel Kwet in Baldissera, Caramaschi, and Haddad, 2004, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 62: 274. ZISP 1422 is a surviving syntype according to Milto, 2010, Russ. J. Herpetol., 17: 257-258. Type locality: "Paraguay, Amer. merid." Synonymy with Rhinella ornata by Milto, 2010, Russ. J. Herpetol., 17: 257-258; with Rhinella scitula by Pereyra, Milto, Brusquetti, Kolenc, and Baldo, 2021, Zootaxa, 5023: 121.

Bufo laevicristatus — Cochran, 1955 "1954", Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 206: 19. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Bufo scitulus Caramaschi and Niemeyer, 2003, Bol. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, N.S., Zool., 501: 3. Holotype: MNRJ 25884, by original designation. Type locality: "BRASIL: MATO GROSSO DO SUL: Município de Bonito, Estância Mimosa (20°59′ S, 56° 31′ W, ca. 300 m de altitude)". Priority over Bufo levicristatus to be maintained under Article 23.9 of the ICZN, 1999, Internatl. Code Zool. Nomencl., Ed. 4

Rhinella scitulaFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 366.

Rhinella paraguayensis Ávila, Pansonato, and Strüssmann, 2010, Zootaxa, 2339: 58. Holotype: UFMT 7430, by original desgination. Type locality: "'Parque Nacional do Pantanal' (17º51′12″S; 57º24′39″W), Poconé municipality, Mato Grosso state, Brazil". Pereyra, Blotto, Baldo, Chaparro, Ron, Elias-Costa, Iglesias, Venegas, Thomé, Ospina-Sarria, Maciel, Rada, Kolenc, Borteiro, Rivera-Correa, Rojas-Runjaic, Moravec, De la Riva, Wheeler, Castroviejo-Fisher, Grant, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2021, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 447: 63. 

English Names

None noted.

Distribution

Western drainage of the Paraguay River in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and in southeastern Paraguay near the border with Brazil, 100 to 700 m elevation; presumably to be found in adjacent eastern Bolivia.

Comment

In the Bufo margaritifer group according to the original publication. Maragno and Souza, 2007, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 216, provided the second record of the species and discussed the range. Brusquetti and Lavilla, 2006, Cuad. Herpetol., 20: 20–21, briefly discussed the range in Paraguay. Ávila, Pansonato, and Strüssmann, 2010, Zootaxa, 2339: 58, provided a dot-map of the range and described external morphology and advertisement call (as Rhinella paraguayensis). Jansen, Bloch, Schulze, and Pfenninger, 2011, Zool. Scripta, 40: 567–583, implied that records of Rhinella margaritifer from Bolivia likely apply to Rhinella paraguayensis or a close cryptic relative. Sugai, Souza, Landgref, and Sczesny-Moraes, 2014, Check List, 10: 694–696, provided a number of new records and mapped the range. In the Rhinella margaritifera clade, Rhinella margaritifera group of Pereyra, Blotto, Baldo, Chaparro, Ron, Elias-Costa, Iglesias, Venegas, Thomé, Ospina-Sarria, Maciel, Rada, Kolenc, Borteiro, Rivera-Correa, Rojas-Runjaic, Moravec, De la Riva, Wheeler, Castroviejo-Fisher, Grant, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2021, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 447: 1–156. Pereyra, Milto, Brusquetti, Kolenc, and Baldo, 2021, Zootaxa, 5023: 121–130, addressed the status of Bufo levicristatus and removed it from the synonymy of Rhinella ornata and placed it as a senior synonym of Rhinella scitulus.  

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