Boana geographica (Spix, 1824)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hylidae > Subfamily: Cophomantinae > Genus: Boana > Species: Boana geographica

Hyla geographica Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 39. Type(s): Not designated, but including animal figured on pl. 11, fig. 1 of the original publication; ZSM 35/0, now lost, according to Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 370, and confirmed by Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 167. Type locality: "flumen Teffé", Amazonas, Brazil.

Hypsiboas geographicaWagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 200.

Hyla (Centrotelma) geographicaBurmeister, 1856, Erläut. Fauna Brasil.: 99.

Centrotelma geographicaCope, 1867, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 204.

Centrotelma cryptomelan Cope, 1867, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 204. Holotype: MCZ 329, by original designation (now MCZ 1530, according to Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 237). Type locality: "Bahia", Brazil; "provàvelmente Salvador", Bahia, Brazil according to Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 24, who discussed the type locality. Synonymy with Hyla punctatissima appendiculata by Parker, 1933, Trop. Agric., Trinidad, 10: 10. Synonymy by Duellman, 1973, Copeia, 1973: 526.

Hyla cryptomelasBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 350. Incorrect subsequent spelling of the species name.

Hyla geographicaMüller, 1922, Bl. Aquar. Terrarienkd., Stuttgart, 33: 170.

Hyla cryptomelanBarbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 237.

Hyla geographica punctatissimaParker, 1935, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1935: 512.

Hyla geographica geographicaParker, 1935, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1935: 511.

Hypsiboas geographicusFaivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 89.

Boana geographica — Dubois, 2017, Bionomina, 11: 28. 

English Names

Map Treefrog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 55; Hedges, Powell, Henderson, Hanson, and Murphy, 2019, Caribb. Herpetol., 67: 13).


Documented with any confidence only from Amazonian northern Bolivia and adjacent southeastern Peru to extreme western Brazil near southeastern Colombia to about Tefé, Brazil. 


See Duellman, 1973, Copeia, 1973: 526-530, and Lutz, 1973, Brazil. Spec. Hyla: 34-37. Duellman, 1978, Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 65: 146–148, provided a brief account including characterization of call and tadpole. Zimmerman, 1983, Herpetologica, 39: 235–246, and Zimmerman and Bogart, 1984, Acta Amazonica, 14: 473–520, reported on vocalization. Márquez, De la Riva, and Bosch, 1993, Biotropica, 25: 426–443, described the advertisement call. Rodríguez and Duellman, 1994, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 22: 27–28, provided a brief account for the Iquitos region of northeastern Peru as Hyla geographicaDe la Riva, Köhler, Lötters, and Reichle, 2000, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 14: 33, commented on subspecies identity in Bolivia. Lescure and Marty, 2000, Collect. Patrimoines Nat., Paris, 45: 130-131, provided a brief account and photo. Kenny, 1969, Stud. Fauna Curaçao and other Caribb. Is., 29: 35-37, and Murphy, 1997, Amph. Rept. Trinidad Tobago: 67-69, provided accounts for the Trinidad population (although this is likely not Boana goegraphica--DRF). Duellman, 2005, Cusco Amazonico: 207–209, provided an account (adult and larval morphology, description of the call, life history). In the Hypsiboas semilineatus group of Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 89. Fouquet, Gilles, Vences, Marty, Blanc, and Gemmell, 2007, PLoS One, 10 (e1109): 1–10, provided molecular evidence that this is a species complex. Kok and Kalamandeen, 2008, Intr. Taxon. Amph. Kaieteur Natl. Park: 170-171, provided an account. See account for Suriname population by Ouboter and Jairam, 2012, Amph. Suriname: 152-153. See Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 405, for brief account and records for Guyana, now presumably assignable to various unnamed species variably associated with Hypsiboas semilineatus and Hypsiboas geographicusMatavelli, Campos, and Andrade, 2014, Check List, 10: 702–705, reported this species in restringa habitats in the state of Maranhão, Brazil. Schulze, Jansen, and Köhler, 2015, Zootaxa, 4016: 36–38, described, diagnosed, and pictured the larva. Fouquet, Martinez, Zeidler, Courtois, Gaucher, Blanc, Lima, Marques-Souza, Rodrigues, and Kok, 2016, Zootaxa, 4084: 79–104, provided a molecular tree of the Hypsiboas geographicus/semilinatus clade and noted several unnamed species. Meza-Joya, Ramos-Pallares, and Hernández-Jaimes, 2019, Herpetol. Notes, 12: 391–400, identified a candidate species, their Boana cf. geographica, in central and eastern Amazonia in Brazil, and southeastern Colombia (and presumably in intervening Peru) and discussed the complex, restricting Boana geographica to western Amazonia in Bolivia, Brazil to the Peruvian border. See Barrio-Amorós, Rojas-Runjaic, and Señaris, 2019, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 13 (1: e180): 63–64, for comments on range, systematics, and literature. For identification of larvae (as Hyla geographica) in central Amazonia, Brazil, see Hero, 1990, Amazoniana, 11: 201–262. Caminer and Ron, 2020, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 190: 149–180, named and resurrected several species that had been confused with this species: Boana appendiculata, Boana nigra, and Boana ventrimaculata, as well as noting other unnamed species. Señaris and Rojas-Runjaic, 2020, in Rull and Carnaval (eds.), Neotrop. Divers. Patterns Process.: 571–632, commented on range and conservation status in the Venezuelan Guayana. See brief account for the Manú region, Peru, by Villacampa-Ortega, Serrano-Rojas, and Whitworth, 2017, Amph. Manu Learning Cent.: 162–163. 

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