Scinax ruber (Laurenti, 1768)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hylidae > Subfamily: Hylinae > Genus: Scinax > Species: Scinax ruber

Hyla rubra Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 35. Type(s): By indication including frog illustrated by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 2: pl. 68, fig. 5, and reported as being in the MNHNP by Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 26; RMNH 15292B designated neotype by Duellman and Wiens, 1993, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 153. Type locality: "America"; neotype from Paramaribo, Suriname. Apparently described as new on the basis of the same material by Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 26.

Calamita ruberMerrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 171.

Hyla lateristriga Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 32. Type(s): Not specifically designated but including animal figured on pl. 6, fig. 4, in the original publication; holotype is ZSM 48/2005 according to Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 167; reported in error as lost by Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 363. Type locality: Not stated, but Brazil; by implication. Synonymy by Peters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 207, 214.

Auletris rubraWagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 201.

Dendrohyas rubraTschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 33, 74.

Hyla (Hyla) rubraBurmeister, 1856, Erläut. Fauna Brasil.: 109.

Hyla conirostris Peters, 1863, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1863: 464. Holotype: ZMB 4917, not located in 1993 by Bauer, Günther, and Klipfel, 1995, in Bauer et al. (eds.), Herpetol. Contr. W.C.H. Peters: 42. Type locality: "Surinam". Synonymy by Peters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 207; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 404.

Scytopis alleni Cope, 1870 "1869", Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 11: 162. Syntypes: ANSP and MCZ 473 according to the original publication. Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 349, considered ANSP 2159 (Pebas) and MCZ 1519 (Pará) [presumably formerly the MCZ 473 mentioned in the original description—DRF] as the syntypes. Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 338, regarded MCZ 1519 (renumbered?) as the holotype, in error. MCZ 1519 designated lectotype by Duellman and Wiens, 1993, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 153: 42. Type localities: "Pebas", Loreto, Peru, and "Pará" (= Belém, Pará), Brazil; restricted to Pará, Brazil, by lectotype designation. Provisional synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 404; this supported by Duellman and Wiens, 1993, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 153: 42.

Hyla rubraPeters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 207.

Scytopis cryptanthus Cope, 1874, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 26: 123. Type: Not stated, but presumably originally in ANSP, not located. Type locality: "Nauta", Departamento Loreto, Peru. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 404.

Scytopis ruberCope, 1874, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 26: 123.

Phyllomedusa (Scytopsis) cryptanthusKnauer, 1878, Naturgesch. Lurche: 112.

Hyla lineomaculata Werner, 1899, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 49: 483. Holotype: ZFMK 28585 (originally in ZIUG) according to Böhme and Bischoff, 1984, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 19: 181, and Böhme, 2014, Mertensiella, 21: 100. Type locality: "Arima, Trinidad". Synonymy by Barbour, 1920, Am. Nat., 54: 287.

Hyla rubra hübneri Melin, 1941, Göteborgs K. Vetensk. Vitterh. Samh. Handl., Ser. B, 1: 32. Syntypes: NHMG 476 (Taracuá), 477 (São Gabriel), 478 (Manáus), according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 97. Type localities: "Taracuá, Rio Uaupés", "S[ão]. Gabriel, Rio Negro", and "vicinity of Manáos", Amazonas, Brazil. Synonymy by Cochran and Goin, 1970, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 288: 239.

Hyla robersimoni Donoso-Barros, 1965, Not. Mens. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Santiago, 102: 2. Holotype: Not stated; R. Donoso-Barros 645301, according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 97, now MZUC 8544 according to Barrio-Amorós and Ortiz, 2015, Gayana, 79: 72. Type locality: "de los pajonales de la península de Paria", Estado de Sucre, Venezuela. (Also named as new in Donoso-Barros, 1966, Bol. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat., Santiago, 29: 37.) Synonymy by Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: ix, 97.

Ololygon rubraFouquette and Delahoussaye, 1977, J. Herpetol., 11: 392.

Ololygon alleniFouquette and Delahoussaye, 1977, J. Herpetol., 11: 392.

Scinax alleniDuellman and Wiens, 1992, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 151: 21.

Scinax rubraDuellman and Wiens, 1992, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 151: 23.

Scinax ruberKöhler and Böhme, 1996, Rev. Fr. Aquar. Herpetol., 23: 139.

English Names

Red Snouted Treefrog (Hyla rubra: Lacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 269).

Red Snouted Treefrog (Scinax ruber: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 64).

Allen's Snouted Treefrog (Scinax alleni [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 63).

Common Snouted Treefrog (Hedges, Powell, Henderson, Hanson, and Murphy, 2019, Caribb. Herpetol., 67: 14). 

Two-striped Snouted Treefrog (Villacampa-Ortega, Serrano-Rojas, and Whitworth, 2017, Amph. Manu Learning Cent.: 202).


Amazon Basin of Brazil (and to Amapá), Bolivia, Peru, Colombia, and Ecuador; Guianas to eastern and southeastern Venezuela (Península de Paria to the northern versant of Sierra de Lema); eastern Panama east through coastal northern South America; Tobago, Trinidad, and St. Lucia (Lesser Antilles). Introduced on Puerto Rico and Martinique. Possibly to be found in northernmost Paraguay. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural resident: Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Panama, Peru, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Venezuela

Likely/controversial occurrence in political unit: Paraguay

Introduced: Martinique, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia


In the Scinax ruber clade of Faivovich, Haddad, Garcia, Frost, Campbell, and Wheeler, 2005, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 294: 96. See comment under Scinax alter.  Duellman, 1978, Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 65: 163–164, provided a brief account including characterization of call and tadpole. See account by Duellman and Wiens, 1993, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 153: 37–42. Langone, 1992, Bol. Asoc. Herpetol. Argentina, 8: 5–6, suggested that status needed to be reviewed of Hyla madeira Bokermann, 1966, Hyla lindneri Müller and Hellmich, 1936, and Hyla parkeri Gaige, 1929 (all three now junior synonyms of Scinax fuscomarginatus); Scinax trilineatus (Hoogmoed and Gorzula, 1979); and Hyla robertsimoni Donoso-Barros, 1966 (now a junior synonym of Scinax ruber). See De la Riva, Márquez, and Bosch, 1994, Bijdr. Dierkd., 64: 75–85, for advertisement call. Rodríguez and Duellman, 1994, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 22: 50, provided a brief account for the Iquitos region of northeastern Peru as Hyla rubraDe la Riva, Köhler, Lötters, and Reichle, 2000, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 14: 37, suggested that the species is composite. Lescure and Marty, 2000, Collect. Patrimoines Nat., Paris, 45: 168–169, provided a photo and brief account for French Guiana. Murphy, 1997, Amph. Rept. Trinidad Tobago: 76–78, provided a brief account for Trinidad. Gorzula and Señaris, 1999 "1998", Scient. Guaianae, 8: 41–43, commented on range in Venezuela. Barrio-Amorós, 1999 "1998", Acta Biol. Venezuelica, 18: 37, commented on nomenclature. Lever, 2003, Naturalized Rept. Amph. World: 184, reported on introduced populations on St. Lucia, St. Martinm abd Puerto Rico. Fouquet, Vences, Salducci, Meyer, Marty, Blanc, and Gilles, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 43: 567–582, suggested on the basis of analysis of molcular data that nominal Scinax ruber may be composed of as many as 6 species, forming a paraphyletic group with respect to Scinax x-signatus, Scinax cruentommus, and Scinax boesemaniDuellman, 2005, Cusco Amazonico: 245–247, provided an account (adult and larval morphology, description of the call, life history). Brusquetti and Lavilla, 2006, Cuad. Herpetol., 20: 23, suggested that early records of this species for Paraguay are based on Scinax nasicusFouquet, Gilles, Vences, Marty, Blanc, and Gemmell, 2007, PLoS One, 10 (e1109): 1–10, provided molecular evidence that this is a species complex. Kok and Kalamandeen, 2008, Intr. Taxon. Amph. Kaieteur Natl. Park: 200–201, provided an account. França and Venâncio, 2010, Biotemas, 23: 71–84, provided a record for the municipality of Boca do Acre, Amazonas, with a brief discussion of the range. Bernarde, Machado, and Turci, 2011, Biota Neotrop., 11: 117–144, reported specimens from Reserva Extrativista Riozinho da Liberdade, Acre, Brazil. See account for Suriname population by Ouboter and Jairam, 2012, Amph. Suriname: 184–185. See Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 416–417, for brief account and records for Guyana. Henderson and Powell, 2009, Nat. Hist. Rept. Amph. W. Indies: 90, summarized the natural history literature for the introduced Puerto Rican population. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 262–264, provided a brief summary of natural history and identification key for the species of Scinax in Central America and provided a range map and photograph for this species. Morales, 2011, Caribb. Herpetol., 21: 1, reported this introduced species into southwestern Puerto Rico. Méndez-Narváez, Ortiz-Navia, and Bolívar-García, 2014, Check List, 10: 409–410, reported the species in the Cauca Valley in the Departamento de Valle de Cauca, Colombia. Palacio Baena, Muñoz Escobar, Gallo Delgado, and Rivera-Correa, 2006, Anfibios y Reptiles del Valle de Aburrá: 78–80, provided a brief account and photograph. Lynch and Suárez-Mayorga, 2011, Caldasia, 33: 235–270, illustrated the tadpole and included the species in a key to the tadpoles of Amazonian Colombia. Señaris, Lampo, Rojas-Runjaic, and Barrio-Amorós, 2014, Guía Ilust. Anf. Parque Nac. Canaima: 186–187, provided a photograph and a brief account for the Parque Nacional de Canaima, Venezuela. Schulze, Jansen, and Köhler, 2015, Zootaxa, 4016: 50–51, described, diagnosed, and pictured the larva they referred to Scinax ruber F. Guarnizo, Paz, Muñoz-Ortiz, Flechas-Hernández, Méndez-Narváez, and Crawford, 2016, PLoS One, 10(5: e0127312): 1–20, suggested on the basis of molecular evidence that three species likely exist in Colombia under this binomial. Zimmerman, 1983, Herpetologica, 39: 235–246, reported on advertisement call, as Hyla rubraOvalle-Pacheco, Camacho-Rozo, and Arroyo, 2019, Check List, 15: 397, reported the species from Boyacá, Colombia, and commented on the range in Colombia. See Barrio-Amorós, Rojas-Runjaic, and Señaris, 2019, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 13 (1: e180): 87, for comments on range and literature. Señaris and Rojas-Runjaic, 2020, in Rull and Carnaval (eds.), Neotrop. Divers. Patterns Process.: 571–632, commented on range and conservation status in the Venezuelan Guayana. See brief account for the Manu region, Peru, by Villacampa-Ortega, Serrano-Rojas, and Whitworth, 2017, Amph. Manu Learning Cent.: 202–203. Metcalf, Marsh, Torres Pacaya, Graham, and Gunnels, 2020, Herpetol. Notes, 13: 753–767, reported the species from the Santa Cruz Forest Reserve, Loreto, northeastern Peru. Taucce, Costa-Campos, Carvalho, and Michalski, 2022, Eur. J. Taxon., 836: 96–130, reported on distribution, literature, and conservation status for Amapá, Brazil. Schiesari, Rossa-Feres, Menin, and Hödl, 2022, Zootaxa, 5223: 72–73, detailed larval and metamorph morphology and natural history. Gagliardi-Urrutia, García Dávila, Jaramillo-Martinez, Rojas-Padilla, Rios-Alva, Aguilar-Manihuari, Pérez-Peña, Castroviejo-Fisher, Simões, Estivals, Guillen Huaman, Castro Ruiz, Angulo Chávez, Mariac, Duponchelle, and Renno, 2022, Anf. Loreto: 124–125, provided a brief account, photograph, dot map, and genetic barcode for Loreto, Peru.    

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