Trachycephalus "typhonius"

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Hylidae > Subfamily: Hylinae > Genus: Trachycephalus > Species: Trachycephalus "typhonius"

Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, Spec. Med. Exhib. Synops. Rept.: 31. Type(s): Originally including by indication the frog illustrated by Seba, 1734, Locuplet. Rer. Nat. Thesaur. Descript. Icon. Exp. Univ. Phys. Hist., 1: pl. 72, fig. 4. This set aside by Anonymous, 1958, Opin. Declar. Internatl. Comm. Zool. Nomencl., 19: 169–200, which placed this name on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology and designated as neotype the type of Hyla zonata Spix (figured by Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 41, pl. 12, fig. 1). Type locality: "Indiis"; changed by neotype designation to "arbustis et arboribus ad flumen Teffé", Brazil; restricted by Duellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 96: 37, to Lago Teffe at the mouth of the Rio Teffe, where it empties into the Rio Solimoes, Amazonas, Brazil. Synonymy with Trachycephalus typhonius by Lavilla, Langone, Padial, and de Sá, 2010, Zootaxa, 2671: 17–30.

Rana reticularis Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 296, 458. Substitute name for Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768. Rejected as published in a nonbinominal work by Opinion 2104, Anonymous, 2005, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 62: 55.

Hyla bufonia Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 42. Type(s): Not designated, but including animal figured on pl. 12, fig. 2 of the original publication; holotype originally in ZSM, now lost according to Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 371, and confirmed by Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 166. Type locality: "Egca", Tefé, Amazonas, Brazil. Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 561; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 104.

Hyla zonata Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 41. Type(s): Not designated but including specimen figured on pl. 12, fig. 1 of the original publication; holotype was ZSM 48/0, now lost, according to Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 370, and confirmed by Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 170. Type locality: "flumen Teffé", Amazonas, Brazil. Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 561; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 41; Peters, 1872, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1872: 219, 226. Placed on the Official List of Rejected and Invalid Specific Names in Zoology by Anonymous, 1958, Opin. Declar. Internatl. Comm. Zool. Nomencl., 19: 172.

Hypsiboas zonata — Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 200.

Hypsiboas bufonia — Wagler, 1830, Nat. Syst. Amph.: 200.

Hypsiboas venulosus — Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 72.

Hyla vermiculata Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 563. Holotype: MNHNP 4797, according to Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 24. Type locality: North America; by implication of discussion in text. Synonymy with Rana venulosa by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 365. Status unclear. 

Hyla zonalis — Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 561. Incorrect subsequent spelling of Hyla zonata.

Phrynohyas (Acrodytes) venulosa — Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 30.

Phrynohyas zonata — Fitzinger, 1843, Syst. Rept.: 30.

Hyla lichenosa Günther, 1858, Arch. Naturgesch., 24: 327. Syntypes: BMNH (11 specimens) according to Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 102; BMNH 1947.2.23.40–43 (formerly 1854.11.13.14–17) (Veracruz) and 1947.2.23.39 (formerly 1856.3.17.24) (Cordova) according to Condit, 1964, J. Ohio Herpetol. Soc., 4: 91; in addition BMNH 1936.12.3.119 and 1047.2.23.37–39 (formerly 1957.10.28.49) are syntypes according to museum records; BMNH 1936.3.12.119, designated lectotype by Smith and Taylor, 1948, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 194: 75. Type localities: "Mexico" and "Amazonen-Strom"; later rendered as "South America", "Amazons", "America", "Vera Cruz", "Cordova", and "Mexico" by Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 102; lectotype from Amazonas, Brazil. Restricted to "Amazon River", Brazil by Smith and Taylor, 1950, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 33: 363. Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 364.

Scytopis hebes Cope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 354. Holotype: USNM 5837 according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 78. Type locality: Not mentioned specifically, but the Page Expedition visited many localities now in Brazil, northeastern Argentina, and southern Paraguay, along the drainages of the Paraná and Paraguai Rivers; restricted to the vicinity of Asunción, Paraguay, by Duellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 96: 16. Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 365; Günther, 1901, Biol. Centr. Amer., Rept. Batr., Vol. 7, Part 166: 272; Duellman, 1966, Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist., 17: 277. Recognized by Duellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 96: 16.

Scytopis venulosus — Cope, 1866, J. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, Ser. 2, 6: 85.

Hyla spilomma Cope, 1877, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 17: 86. Types: Deposition not stated; presumably USNM and now lost according to Kellogg, 1932, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 160: 177. Type locality: "Cosamaloapam[, ] Vera Cruz", Mexico. Synonymy with Rana venulosa by Kellogg, 1932, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 160: 176. Placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology by Anonymous, 1958, Opin. Declar. Internatl. Comm. Zool. Nomencl., 19: 172.

Hyla paenulata Brocchi, 1879, Bull. Soc. Philomath., Paris, Ser. 7, 3: 21. Holotype: MNHNP, apparently lost as not mentioned in subsequent type list. Type locality: "versant occidental du Guatemala". Synonymy with Rana venulosa by Günther, 1901, Biol. Centr. Amer., Rept. Batr., Vol. 7, Part 166: 272.

Hyla nigropunctata Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 366. Syntypes: Including BMNH 1859.9.20.2 and 1881.10.31.20, and several of the syntypes of Hyla lichenosa implied by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 366; and according to Kellogg, 1932, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 160: 177. Type localities: "Jalapa" (1 specimen), "Veracruz" (4 specimens), "Cordova" (1 specimen), and "Mexico" (3 specimens). Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Kellogg, 1932, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 160: 176.

Hyla palpebrogranulata Andersson, 1906, Ark. Zool., 3(12): 14. Holotype: ZIUS A133, according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 155. Type locality: "Tatarenda, [Santa Cruz Department,] Chaco, Bolivia". Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Duellman, 1971, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 4: 11.

Hyla wettsteini Ahl, 1933, Zool. Anz., 104: 25. Holotype: NHMW 19013, according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 155, and Häupl and Tiedemann, 1978, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 2: 20. Type locality: "Taperinha bei Santarem", Pará, Brazil. Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Duellman, 1971, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 4: 11.

Acrodytes inflata Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 30: 63. Holotype: EHT-HMS 17890, by original designation; now FMNH 100046 according to Marx, 1976, Fieldiana, Zool., 69: 42. Type locality: "near La Venta, Guerrero", Mexico. Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Duellman, 1966, Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist., 17: 277, and McDiarmid, 1968, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 134: 1–25.

Acrodytes spilomma — Taylor, 1944, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 30: 64.

Acrodytes modesta Taylor and Smith, 1945, Proc. U.S. Natl. Mus., 95: 594. Holotype: USNM 115013, by original designation. Type locality: "Cruz de Piedra, near Acacoyagua, Chiapas, Mexico". Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Duellman, 1966, Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist., 17: 277.

Phrynohyas latifasciata Duellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 96: 24. Holotype: BMNH 1883.2.7.1, by original designation. Type locality: "Presidio, Sinaloa, Mexico". Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by McDiarmid, 1968, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 134: 2.

Phrynohyas inflata — Duellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 96: 22.

Phrynohyas modesta — Duellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 96: 25.

Phrynohyas spilomma — Duellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 96: 28.

Phrynohyas ingens Duellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 96: 22. Holotype: UMMZ 55570, by original designation. Type locality: "La Fría, Pueblo Nuevo, Depto. Zulia, Venezuela". Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Duellman, 1971, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 4: 11.

Phrynohyas zonata — Duellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 96: 35.

Phrynohyas hebes — Duellman, 1956, Misc. Publ. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 96: 16.

Hyla tibiatrix ingens — Rivero, 1961, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 126: 131.

Phrynohyas corasterias Shannon and Humphrey, 1957, Herpetologica, 13: 15. Holotype: FAS 11307, by original designation; now UIMNH 67060 according to Duellman, 1977, Das Tierreich, 95: 155. Type locality: "4.8 miles east of San Blas, Nayarit", Mexico. Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Duellman, 1961, Univ. Kansas Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist., 15: 45.

Hyla adenoderma Lutz, 1968, Pearce-Sellards Ser., 10: 3. Holotype: MNRJ 4054, by original designation. Type locality: "banks of the Rio Branco, a sub-tributary of Rio Madeira in Rondonia, Brazil . . . . The locality lies approximately between 8° to 12 S. and 62° to 63° 30′ W." Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Duellman, 1971, Occas. Pap. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 4: 11.

Argenteohyla altamazonica Henle, 1981, Amphibia-Reptilia, 2: 134. Holotype: ZFMK 29993, by original designation. Type locality: "Peru; Pucallpa, ca. 200 m NN". Synonymy with Rana venulosa Laurenti, 1768, by Duellman, 1985 "1984", Amphibia-Reptilia, 5: : 413.

Trachycephalus "typhonius"  — Here. 29 May 2022. A place-holder "taxon" for all names available for former Trachycephalus typhonius from Chocoan South America to southern and eastern Mexico. See discussion under Trachycephalus typhonius

English Names

Veined Treefrog (Liner, 1994, Herpetol. Circ., 23: 25; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 61; Lee, 1996, Amph. Rept. Yucatan Peninsula: 101; Lee, 2000, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Maya World: 107; Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 26, as Phrynohyas venulosa and Trachycephalus venulosus).

Milky Treefrog (Campbell, 1998, Amph. Rept. N. Guatemala Yucatan Belize: 83, as Phrynohyas venulosa).

Common Tree Frog (Hyla tibiatrix [no longer recognized]: Lacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 267).

Warty Tree Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 67, as Phrynohyas venulosa).

Marbled Tree Frog (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 67, as Phrynohyas venulosa).

Veined Frog (Lacépède, 1802, Nat. Hist. Ovip. Quadruped. (Kerr transl.): 238, as Rana venulosa).

Vein-eyed Glue Frog (Eterovick and Sazima, 2004, Anf. Serra do Cipó: 59, as Phrynohyas venulosa).

Amazon Milk Frog (Trade name).

Pepper Treefrog (Hedges, Powell, Henderson, Hanson, and Murphy, 2019, Caribb. Herpetol., 67: 14). 

Distribution

Delimited in the sense of records of nominal Trachycephalus typhonius not being recently assigned to Trachycephalus typhonius (sensu stricto), Trachycephalus macrotis, and Trachycephalus quadrangulum: Argentina, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad, and Venezuela. 

Lowlands of tropical Mexico, Central America (to 2500 m in Guatemala), possibly to Chocoan Colombia (which may also be assignable to Trachycephalus quadrangulum) and likely into northern Venezuela in the Maracaibo region; likely Amazon basin of Bolivia, Brazil, south to Paraná (Brazil), Paraguay, northern Argentina. It is also present on both Trinidad and Tobago

Comment

See comment under Trachycephalus typhonius. Ron, Venegas, Ortega-Andrade, Gagliardi-Urrutia, and Salerno, 2016, ZooKeys, 630: 115–154, initiated the nomenclatural breakup of nominal Trachycephalus typhonius (sensu lato), which, with their restriction of Trachycephalus typhonius to Guyana and Surinam, and recognition of Trachycephalus quadrangulum (of western Ecuador possibly to northwestern Peru and southwestern Colombia) and Trachycephalus macrotis (of Amazonian Ecuador and northeastern Peru), left populations from Mexico and Central America and much of Amazonian and tropical South America, although it is reasonably clear that most of these unallocated populations will be conspecific with Trachycephalus typhonius (sensu stricto). 

The ollowing literature applies to one or more species in the complex that have not been taxonomically sorted: Kenny, 1969, Stud. Fauna Curaçao and other Caribb. Is., 29: 52–54,, provided an account (as Phrynohyas zonata) for Trinidad and Tobago. Duellman, 1970, Monogr. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas: 163–172, provided a general account (as Phrynohyas venulosa) for Mexico and Central America. Duellman, 1978, Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 65: 174–175, provided a brief account (as Phrynohyas venulosa) including characterization of call and tadpole. See Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 444–450. Rodríguez and Duellman, 1994, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 22: 42–43, provided a brief account for the Iquitos region of northeastern Peru as Phrynohyas venulosaDe la Riva, Márquez, and Bosch, 1995, J. Herpetol., 29: 113–118, reported on the advertisement call in Bolivia. Lee, 1996, Amph. Rept. Yucatan Peninsula: 101–104, provided a general account (as Phrynohyas venulosa) for the Yucatan Peninsula. Lips and Savage, 1996, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 109: 17–26, included this species (as Phrynohyas venulosa) in a key to the tadpoles found in Costa Rica. Murphy, 1997, Amph. Rept. Trinidad Tobago: 73–74, provided an account (as Phrynohyas zonata) for Trinidad and Tobago. Campbell, 1998, Amph. Rept. N. Guatemala Yucatan Belize: 83–84, provided a general account (as Phrynohyas venulosa) for Guatemala, Belize, and the Yucatan Peninsula. Lee, 2000, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Maya World: 107–109, provided a general account for the Yucatan Peninsula. Lescure and Marty, 2000, Collect. Patrimoines Nat., Paris, 45: 198–199, provided a photo and brief account for French Guiana, as Phrynohyas venulosaKöhler, 2000, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 48: 108, provided a brief account, as Phrynohyas venulosa. See accounts, as Phrynohyas venulosa, by Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 340–342, and McCranie and Wilson, 2002, Amph. Honduras: 281–285. Eterovick and Sazima, 2004, Anf. Serra do Cipó: 59–60, provided a photograph and brief account (as Phrynohyas venulosa). Duellman, 2005, Cusco Amazonico: 232–234, provided (as Phrynohyas venulosa) an account (adult and larval morphology, description of the call, life history). Köhler, Veselý, and Greenbaum, 2005 "2006", Amph. Rept. El Salvador: 39–40, provided an account (as Phrynohyas venulosa, and for El Salvador) and a color photograph. Brusquetti and Lavilla, 2006, Cuad. Herpetol., 20: 12, briefly discussed range in Paraguay. Rossa-Feres and Nomura, 2006 "2005", Biota Neotrop., São Paulo, 6 (2: bn00706012006): 1–24, characterized larval morphology of this species (as Trachycephalus venulosus) and provided a key to the larvae of northwestern São Paulo state, Brazil. McCranie, 2007, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 39, detailed the departmental distribution in Honduras. Ramírez-Valverde, Sarmiento-Rojas, Meza-Parral, and Martínez-Campo, 2009, Herpetol. Rev., 40: 447–448, as Trachycephalus venulosus, provided a record for Puebla, Mexico, and commented on the range. França and Venâncio, 2010, Biotemas, 23: 71–84, provided a record (as Trachycephalus venulosus) for the municipality of Boca do Acre, Amazonas, with a brief discussion of the range. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 270–271, provided a brief summary of natural history and  provided a range map and photograph for this species (as Trachycephalus venulosus) in Central America. Soares, Iop, and Santos, 2012, Check List, 8: 817–818, extended the range to Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, and commented on the range. Lemos-Espinal and Dixon, 2013, Amphibians and Reptiles of San Luis Potosí: 60–61, provided an account for San Luis Potosí, Mexico. Sunyer, Martínez-Fonseca, Salazar-Saavedra, Galindo-Uribe, and Obando, 2014, Mesoam. Herpetol., 1: 170, provided records for the departments of Carazo, León, and Río San Juan, Nicaragua. Lemos-Espinal and Smith, 2015, Check List, 11(1642): 1–11, noted the occurrence of the species in Hidalgo, Mexico, without providing a specific locality. Schulze, Jansen, and Köhler, 2015, Zootaxa, 4016: 51–53, described, diagnosed, and pictured the larva. Acosta-Galvis, 2017, Biota Colomb., 18: 282–315, reported the species from the Municipality of Yopal, Casanare Department, Colombia. Forti, Foratto, Márquez, Pereira, and Toledo, 2018, PeerJ, 6(e4813): 1–19, characterized the advertisement call. Zimmerman, 1983, Herpetologica, 39: 235–246, reported on advertisement call, as Phrynohyas venulosaFerraro, Blotto, Baldo, Barrasso, Barrionuevo, Basso, Cardozo, Cotichelli, Faivovich, Pereyra, and Lavilla, 2018, in Vaira, Akmentins, and Lavilla (eds.), Cuad. Herpetol., 32 (Supl. 1): 17–19, noted that the taxonomic status of the Argentinian populations remains problematic. Zaracho, Aguiar, and Giaretta, 2018, Zootaxa, 4521: 414–416, reported on geographic variation in the advertisement call and suggested on these data the possibility of cryptic species. Neves, Yves, Pereira Silva, Alves, Vasques, Coelho, and Silva, 2019, Herpetozoa, Wien, 32: 113–123, provided habitat information and records for western Minas Gerais, Brazil. See Barrio-Amorós, Rojas-Runjaic, and Señaris, 2019, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 13 (1: e180): 81, for comments on range, systematics, and literature. Gómez-Hoyos, Herrera Molina, Arias Marín, Méndez-Arrieta, and Méndez-Arrieta, 2020, Rev. Latinoam. Herpetol., 3: 105–107, provided new records and a dot map for Costa Rica (as Trachycephalus typhonius). Señaris and Rojas-Runjaic, 2020, in Rull and Carnaval (eds.), Neotrop. Divers. Patterns Process.: 571–632, commented on range and conservation status in the Venezuelan Guayana. Vaz-Silva, Maciel, Nomura, Morais, Guerra Batista, Santos, Andrade, Oliveira, Brandão, and Bastos, 2020, Guia Ident. Anf. Goiás e Dist. Fed. Brasil Central: 101–102, provided an account. Eterovick, Souza, and Sazima, 2020, Anf. Serra do Cipó: 1–292, provided an account, life history information, and an identification scheme for the Serra de Cipó, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Castellanos-Durán and Giraldo-Palacios, 2022, Catal. Anf. Rept. Colombia, Medellín, 8: 93–101, provided a general account for Colombia. 

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