Bufotes sitibundus (Pallas, 1771)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Bufotes > Species: Bufotes sitibundus

Rana sitibunda Pallas, 1771, Reise Vers. Prov. Russ. Reich, 1: 458. Types: Not stated and location unknown if not lost. Type locality: "In desertis siccis ad Iaicum" (= in dry deserts at Jaico [= Yaik], Russia); restricted by Mertens and Wermuth, 1960, Amph. Rept. Europas: 48, to "Vorposten Tschanganskoi, Jaikische Steppen" ["outpost Tschanganskoi, Yaik (= Ural) steppes"]. Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 251, gave the type locality as "Chaganskoi Settlement, Ural (Yaik) River, southern Ural, Russia". 

Bufo sitibundus — Schneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 225.

Bufo cursor Daudin, 1803 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 164. Types: Including specimen figured by Lepekhin, 1774, Tagebuch Reise Verschiedene Provinz. Russ. Reiches, 1: 318, pl. xxii, fig. 6; reprinted by Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 261. Type locality: "les steppes du Pérémiot près de l'Iaïk", Russia, specified to be near Guryev (47° 07′ N; 41° 56′E); "near Peremetnoe settlement, Uralsk province, Kazakhstan" according to Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 251. Synonymy with Bufo calamita by Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 141; Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 547; and Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 294, even though the range of Bufo calamita does not extend to the type locality; see Kuzmin, 1999, Amph. Former Soviet Union: 480. Considered a nomen dubium, most likely associated with Bufo viridis by Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 260-261. Synonymy by Dufresnes, Mazepa, Jablonski, Oliveira, Wenseleers, Shabanov, Auer, Ernst, Koch, Ramírez-Chaves, Mulder, Simonovo, Tiutenko, Kryvokhyzhar, Wennekes, Zinenko, Korshunov, Al-Johany, Peregontsev, Masroor, Betto-Colliard, Denoël, Borkin, Skorinov, Pasynkova, Mazanaeva, Rosanov, Dubey, and Litvinchuk, 2019, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 141: 22. 

Bufo variabilis var. sitibunda — Eichwald, 1831, Zool. Special.: 167.

Bufo variabilis var. crucigera Eichwald, 1831, Zool. Special.: 167. Types: Not stated. Type locality: "in plateis Astrachani oppidi vespere circumsaltitans"; given as "Astrakhan City, Russia", by Kuzmin and Maslova, 2003, Adv. Amph. Res. Former Soviet Union, 8: 255. Synonymy with Bufotes viridis by Schreiber, 1875, Herpetol. Eur.: 138 (under Bufo variabilis); Camerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 233. Synonymy by Dufresnes, Mazepa, Jablonski, Oliveira, Wenseleers, Shabanov, Auer, Ernst, Koch, Ramírez-Chaves, Mulder, Simonovo, Tiutenko, Kryvokhyzhar, Wennekes, Zinenko, Korshunov, Al-Johany, Peregontsev, Masroor, Betto-Colliard, Denoël, Borkin, Skorinov, Pasynkova, Mazanaeva, Rosanov, Dubey, and Litvinchuk, 2019, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 141: 22. 

Bufo viridis var. crucigera — Camerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 233.

Bufo viridis var. concolor Camerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 234. Types: MZUT. Type locality: "Piemonte", Italy. Unavailable name due to being coined as a infrasubspecific category according to Novarini and Bonato, 2010, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 5: 37-62.

Bufo viridis kermanensis Eiselt and Schmidtler, 1971, Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 75: 383. Holotype: NHMW 19647.1, by original designation. Type locality: "Kerman-Stadt, Prov. Kerman, Iran". A diploid form; see karyotype of topotypes in Stöck, Frynta, Grosse, Steinlein, and Schmid, 2001, Asiat. Herpetol. Res., 9: 83. See also Borkin, Rosanov, and Litvinchuk, 2001 "2000", Russ. J. Herpetol., 7: 175, and Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 295, who provided an nomenclatural discussion. Synonymy by Dufresnes, Mazepa, Jablonski, Oliveira, Wenseleers, Shabanov, Auer, Ernst, Koch, Ramírez-Chaves, Mulder, Simonovo, Tiutenko, Kryvokhyzhar, Wennekes, Zinenko, Korshunov, Al-Johany, Peregontsev, Masroor, Betto-Colliard, Denoël, Borkin, Skorinov, Pasynkova, Mazanaeva, Rosanov, Dubey, and Litvinchuk, 2019, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 141: 22. 

Bufo kavirensis Andrén and Nilson, 1979, J. Herpetol., 13: 93. Holotype: NHMG Ba.ex 1276, by original designation; reported as 1278 by Stöck, Frynta, Grosse, Steinlein, and Schmid, 2001, Asiat. Herpetol. Res., 9: 79. Type locality: "Cheshmeh-ye Sefied Ab (34° 21′ N, 52° 14′ E), situated about 10 km southwest of Kuh-e Ghal'e-ye Sard mountains and about 30 km south of Siah Kuh mountains in the southern part of the Kavir Protected Region about 200 km south of Teheran, Iran". Synonymy with Bufo viridis kermanensis by Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 300; Oraie, Rastegar-Pouyani, Khosravani, and Adibi, 2018, Acta Zool. Bulgarica, 70: 297. Synonymy by Dufresnes, Mazepa, Jablonski, Oliveira, Wenseleers, Shabanov, Auer, Ernst, Koch, Ramírez-Chaves, Mulder, Simonovo, Tiutenko, Kryvokhyzhar, Wennekes, Zinenko, Korshunov, Al-Johany, Peregontsev, Masroor, Betto-Colliard, Denoël, Borkin, Skorinov, Pasynkova, Mazanaeva, Rosanov, Dubey, and Litvinchuk, 2019, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 141: 22.

Bufo viridis kavirensisStöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 301.

Bufo variabilis kermanensisStöck, Moritz, Hickerson, Frynta, Dujsebayeva, Eremchenko, Macey, Papenfuss, and Wake, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 41: 667.

Bufo (Pseudepidalea) viridis kermanensisRastegar-Pouyani, Kami, Rajabzadeh, Shafiei, and Anderson, 2008, Iranian J. Anim. Biosyst., 4: 44. Presumably based on misidentifications.

Bufo (Bufotes) variabilis kermanensisDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 25. See comment under Bufotes record.

Bufotes variabilis kermanensisFrost, 2013, Amph. Spec. World, Vers. 5.6. Required change because of non-monophyly of Bufo.

Bufotes variabilis —  Safaei-Mahroo, Ghaffari, Fahimi, Broomand, Yazdanian, Najafi-Majd, Hosseinian Yousefkani, Rezazadeh, Hosseinzadeh, Nasrabadi, Rajabizadeh, Mashayekhi, Motesharei, Naderi, and Kazemi, 2015, Asian Herpetol. Res., 6: 266. 

Bufotes kavirensis — Oraie, Rastegar-Pouyani, Khosravani, and Adibi, 2018, Acta Zool. Bulgarica, 70: 297. 

Bufotes viridis sitibundus — Speybroeck, Beukema, Dufresnes, Fritz, Jablonski, Lymberakis, Martínez-Solano, Razzetti, Vamberger, Vences, Vörös, and Crochet, 2020, Amphibia-Reptilia, 41: 148. 

English Names

Thirsty Frog (Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 115).

Variable Green Toad (Arekelyan, Danielyan, Corti, Sindaco, and Leviton, 2012, Herpetofauna of Armenia: 40).

Teheran Toad (Bufo kavirensis [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 42).

Kerman Variable Toad (Bufotes variabilis kermanensisSafaei-Mahroo, Ghaffari, Fahimi, Broomand, Yazdanian, Najafi-Majd, Hosseinian Yousefkani, Rezazadeh, Hosseinzadeh, Nasrabadi, Rajabizadeh, Mashayekhi, Motesharei, Naderi, and Kazemi, 2015, Asian Herpetol. Res., 6: 266. 

Thirsty Toad (Safaei-Mahroo and Ghaffari, 2020, Compl. Guide Amph. Iran: 11). 

Distribution

Northern Sinai (Egypt) north through Israel, Lebanon, western and northern Syria throughout Anatolia and the Caucasus region to southern Russia, Kazakhstan, and southeast through eastern Iraq and western Iran.

Comment

Removed from the synonymy of Bufotes variabilis by  Dufresnes, Mazepa, Jablonski, Oliveira, Wenseleers, Shabanov, Auer, Ernst, Koch, Ramírez-Chaves, Mulder, Simonovo, Tiutenko, Kryvokhyzhar, Wennekes, Zinenko, Korshunov, Al-Johany, Peregontsev, Masroor, Betto-Colliard, Denoël, Borkin, Skorinov, Pasynkova, Mazanaeva, Rosanov, Dubey, and Litvinchuk, 2019, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 141: 1–25 (who reported on the phylogenetics and biogeography of this diploid species), where it had been placed by Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, 16mo ed., 2: 353; Lacépède, 1788, Hist. Nat. Quadrup. Ovip. Serpens, Quarto ed., 1: 586; Daudin, 1803 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 156; (with Rana variabilis) by Merrem, 1820, Tent. Syst. Amph.: 180, and Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 88; and Eichwald, 1842, Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 7: 159; with Bufo viridis by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 682; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 58; Stöck, Günther, and Böhme, 2001, Zool. Abh. Staatl. Mus. Tierkd. Dresden, 51: 259, discussed relevance of this name to Asian taxa of their Bufo viridis subgroup. Stöck, Moritz, Hickerson, Frynta, Dujsebayeva, Eremchenko, Macey, Papenfuss, and Wake, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 41: 663–689, removed Bufo variabilis from the synonymy of Bufo viridis where it had been placed by Bonnaterre, 1789, Tab. Encyclop. Method. Trois Reg. Nat., Erp.: 12 (with Rana schreberianus), by Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 153; Daudin, 1802 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Rain. Gren. Crap., Quarto: 79; Daudin, 1803 "An. XI", Hist. Nat. Gen. Part. Rept., 8: 156; Oken, 1816, Lehrb. Naturgesch., 3(2): 208; Wiegmann, 1832, in Wiegmann and Ruthe (eds.), Handbuch der Zool., Amph.: 202; Eichwald, 1842, Nouv. Mem. Soc. Imp. Nat. Moscou, 7: 159; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 58; Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880:553; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 197. Tosunoglu and Tok, 1997, Turkish J. Zool., 21: 205–211, reported on morphological and osteological variation among southwestern Turkey and northeastern Greece; and Tosunoglu, 1999, Turkish J. Zool., 23: 849–871, reported on morphological, osteological, and serological variation within Turkey (as Bufo viridis). Tosunoglu, 1996, Turkish J. Zool., 20: 103–111, reported on morphometric and serological variation among populations in western and southern Anatolia and also considered the populations in southern Anatolia to be referrable to Bufo viridis arabicus (although this name seems to be properly restricted to populations in southern Arabia). Başoğlu and Özeti, 1973, Türkiye Amphibileri: 89–90, provided an account for the Turkish populations (as Bufo viridis). Disi, Modry, Necas, and Rifai, 2001, Amph. Rept. Hashemite Kingdom Jordan: 93–95, provided an account (as Bufo viridis; but likely of this species) for Jordan, with images. Özeti and Yilmaz, 1994, Türkiye Amfibileri: 131–134, provided an account (as Bufo viridis) for Turkish populations. Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco, and Venchi, 2002, Zool. Middle East, 27: 36, provided definitive records (as Bufo viridis) for Lebanon. Baloutch and Kami, 1995, Amph. Iran: 122–123, 124–135 (as Bufo viridis kermanensis), and 140–144 (as Bufo kavirensis) provided an account for Iran (presumably also containing samples of Bufotes perrini). Speybroeck, Beukema, and Crochet, 2010, Zootaxa, 2492: 7, rejected recognition of this taxon (as Bufo variabilis) from "Bufo" viridis pending publication of evidence beyond mtDNA. Arekelyan, Danielyan, Corti, Sindaco, and Leviton, 2012, Herpetofauna of Armenia: 40–42, provided a brief account for Armenia and environs. Fakharzadeh, Darvish, Kami, Ghasemzadeh, and Rastegar-Pouyani, 2014, Asian Herpetol. Res., 5: 168–178, reported on karyology of the Bufotes viridis complex in the southern part of Iran, showing karyotypic differences between Bufotes luristanicus, Bufotes surdus, and Bufotes variabilis (now Bufotes sitibundus). Portik and Papenfuss, 2015, BMC Evol. Biol., 15 (152): 11, suggested that the Arabian populations of the Bufotes variabilis complex deserved additional study to refine their species identity. Safaei-Mahroo, Ghaffari, Fahimi, Broomand, Yazdanian, Najafi-Majd, Hosseinian Yousefkani, Rezazadeh, Hosseinzadeh, Nasrabadi, Rajabizadeh, Mashayekhi, Motesharei, Naderi, and Kazemi, 2015, Asian Herpetol. Res., 6: 257–290, reported on distribution and conservation status in Iran. Fakharzadeh, Darvish, Kami, Ghassemzadeh, and Rastegar-Pouyani, 2018, Russ. J. Herpetol., 25: 56–60, reported on (as Bufo variabilis) karyological variation in northwestern and southeastern Iran. Oraie, Rastegar-Pouyani, Khosravani, and Adibi, 2018, Acta Zool. Bulgarica, 70: 297–303, found identical mtDNA haplotypes of nominal Bufotes kavirensis and Bufotes variabilis (now Bufotes sitibundus) in southern Iran, further justifying their synonymy. Beşir and Gül, 2019, Herpetol. Notes, 12: 45–51, provided a dot map for Rize Province, northeastern Turkey. Mulder, 2019, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 13: 162–172, reported the species from the Mount Ararat region of extreme eastern Turkey. Hraoui-Bloquet, Sadek, Sindaco, and Venchi, 2002, Zool. Middle East, 27: 36, provided records (as Bufo viridis) for Lebanon but the status of these records requires confirmation. Baloutch and Kami, 1995, Amph. Iran: 122-123, 124-135 (as Bufo viridis kermanensis), 125-126 (as Bufo viridis turanensis), 140-144 (as Bufo kavirensis) provided an account for Iran. Speybroeck, Beukema, Dufresnes, Fritz, Jablonski, Lymberakis, Martínez-Solano, Razzetti, Vamberger, Vences, Vörös, and Crochet, 2020, Amphibia-Reptilia, 41: 148, discussed their reasons for considering Bufotes sitibundus to be a subspecies of Bufotes viridis. Key to the species, synonymy, distribution (including map), and access to literature provided by Safaei-Mahroo and Ghaffari, 2020, Compl. Guide Amph. Iran: 1–331. 

External links:

Please note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. We are not responsible for their content.