Duttaphrynus stuarti (Smith, 1929)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Duttaphrynus > Species: Duttaphrynus stuarti

Bufo stuarti Smith, 1929, Rec. Indian Mus., 31: 77. Holotype: ZSIC 19958 according to I. Das IN Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 159. Type locality: "Putao plain, N.E. Burma, near the Tibetan frontier", Myanmar.

Bufo cyphosus Ye in Sichuan Institute of Biology Herpetology Department, 1977, Acta Zool. Sinica, 23: 55, 62. Holotype: CIB 73I0559, by original designation. Type locality: "Chayü, Xizang [= Tibet], altitude 1540 m", China. Synonymy with Bufo himalayanus by Yang, 1991, Amph. Fauna of Yunnan: 102, and Zhao and Adler, 1993, Herpetol. China: 128, this rejected by Fei, Ye, and Huang, 1990, Key to Chinese Amph.: 111, and Ye, Fei, and Hu, 1993, Rare and Economic Amph. China: 181. Synonymy by : 160. 

Duttaphrynus cyphosus — Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364.

"Bufo" stuartiFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 363. Excluded from Bufo and unassigned to genus.

Duttaphrynus stuartiVan Bocxlaer, Biju, Loader, and Bossuyt, 2009, BMC Evol. Biol., 9 (e131): 4.

Duttaphrynus stuarti stuarti  Che, Jiang, Yan, and Zhang, 2020, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 160. 

Duttaphrynus stuarti cyphosus —  Che, Jiang, Yan, and Zhang, 2020, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 160. 

Duttaphrynus stuarti medogensis Jiang, Wang, Li, and Che in Che, Jiang, Yan, and Zhang, 2020, Amph. Rept. Tibet: 167. Holotype: KIZ 14064, by original designation. Type locality: "the bank of Yarlung Zangbo River near Xirang (560 m), Beibeng, Mêdog, Tibet". 

English Names

Stuart's Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43; Das and Dutta, 1998, Hamadryad, 23: 64).

Projective-occiputed Toad (Bufo cyphosusFei, 1999, Atlas Amph. China: 128).

Distribution

Isolated localities in northeastern India (western and eastern Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, and Meghalaya) into Bhutan (Punakha and Gasa district), Southern slopes of the Himalayas in central and eastern Xizang (China), and upper Myanmar.

Comment

In the Bufo melanostictus group of Inger, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 107; this questioned by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 159, who suggested that the association with Bufo stomaticus was likely correct. Closely related to Bufo stomaticus, according to the original publication. Wogan, Win, Thin, Lwin, Shein, Kyi, and Tun, 2003, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 54: 145-149, redescribed the holotype. Das and Dutta, 2007, Hamadryad, 31: 154–181, noted no larval descriptions in the literature (as Bufo stuarti).  Yang, 2008, in Yang and Rao (ed.), Amph. Rept. Yunnan: 48-50, provided a brief account (as Bufo stuarti) for Yunnan, China. Agarwal and Mistry, 2008, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 166-168, provided a record for western Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India. Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 22-23, provided a brief characterization and photographs. Das, Chetia, Dutta, and Sengupta, 2013, Zootaxa, 3646: 336–348, compared this species with other Duttaphrynus from northeastern India. Wangyal and Gurung, 2012, Frog Leg, 18: 38, provided records from Punakha and Gasa districts, Bhutan. Roy, Begum, and Ahmed, 2019, J. Threatened Taxa, 10: 12942–12943, discussed the range and reported the species from Lower Dibang Valley District (1250–2100 m elevation), Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India. Chettri, 2017, Das (ed.), Diversity Ecol. Amph. India: 89–104, discussed the species in Sikkim, India. 

 Subba, Aravind, and Ravikanth, 2016, Check List, 13(1: 2033): 1, provided records for Sikkim, India. Fei and Ye, 2016, Amph. China, 1: 769–771 (Duttaphrynus cyphosus), 

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