Sclerophrys xeros (Tandy, Tandy, Keith, and Duff-MacKay, 1976)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Sclerophrys > Species: Sclerophrys xeros

Bufo xeros Tandy, Tandy, Keith, and Duff-MacKay, 1976, Pearce-Sellards Ser., 24: 3. Holotype: TNHC 39376, by original designation. Type locality: "Ghinda, Eritrea, Ethiopia, station 32, 15° 26′ N 39° 05′ E, altitude 940 m."

Bufo wazae Hulselmans, 1977, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 91: 512. Holotype: MRAC (formerly Missions Zoologiques Belges au Cameroun 2-99), by original designation. Type locality: "Waza (Cameroon)". Synonymy by Hulselmans, in addendum, although he suggested some differences between the eastern populations (Bufo wazae) and the western populations.

Amietophrynus xerosFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 363.

Sclerophrys xeros Ohler and Dubois, 2016, PeerJ, 4(e1553): 10. 

English Names

Subsaharan Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 44).

Waza Toad (Bufo wazae: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 44).

Savannah Toad (Barnett, Emms, and Santoni, 2001, Herpetol. Bull., London, 77: 7).

Desert Toad (Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 100).

Sub-desert Toad (Largen and Spawls, 2010, Amph. Rept. Ethiopia Eritrea: 86).


Subsaharan Africa from Western Sahara, Mauritania, Gambia, and Senegal and south to northern Cameroon and east through Mali, Niger, central Chad, central Sudan and northern and eastern Ethiopia and southern Eritrea, Djibouti, southern Somalia, northern and eastern Kenya (possibly into southeastern South Sudan), northeastern Uganda, and eastern Tanzania, with an isolated population in the Ahoggar Massif of southern Algeria and in southwestern Libya, 200-1800 m elevation.


In the Bufo regularis group according to the original publication. See Salvador, 1996, Smithson. Herpetol. Inform. Serv., 109, for account. See Largen, 1997, Tropical Zool., 10: 69, for East African distribution. See Géniez, Mateo, and Bons, 2001 "2000", Herpetozoa, Wien, 13: 151, for Western Sahara record. Rödel, 2000, Herpetofauna W. Afr., 1: 60-62, provided an account. Gambia record provided by Barnett, Emms, and Santoni, 2001, Herpetol. Bull., London, 77: 7. See Largen, 2001, Tropical Zool., 14: 320-321, for comments on distribution. Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 100-101, and Pickersgill, 2007, Frog Search: 539-541, provided accounts. Padial and De la Riva, 2004, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 18: 91, provided records from Mauritania. Wanger, 2005, Salamandra, 41: 27-33, provided Gambia records, as did Emms, Jambang, Bah, Mankali, Rödel, and Barnett, 2005, Herpetol. Bull., London, 94: 6-16. Géniez, Mateo, Geniez, and Pether, 2004, Amph. Rept. W. Sahara: 38, provided a brief account for Western Sahara. Ibrahim, 2008, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 3: 35-49, reported the species from southwestern Libya. Froufe, Brito, and Harris, 2009, Afr. Zool., 44: 208-215, reported on phylogeography among populations in the Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, and Niger section of the range, discussed analytical anomalies between the studies of Pramuk, 2006, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 146: 407-452, and Cunningham and Cherry, 2004, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 32: 671-685. Channing, Rödel, and Channing, 2012, Tadpoles of Africa: 139, reported on comparative tadpole morphology. Harper, Measey, Patrick, Menegon, and Vonesh, 2010, Field Guide Amph. E. Arc Mts. Tanzania and Kenya: 114–115, provided a brief account. See detailed account by Escoriza and Ben Hassine, 2019, Amph. N. Afr.: 178–182. Spawls, Wasonga, and Drewes, 2019, Amph. Kenya: 12, provided a range map for Kenya, photograph, and brief characterization. Channing and Rödel, 2019, Field Guide Frogs & Other Amph. Afr.: 68–69, provided a brief account, photograph, and range map. Ayoro, Segniagbeto, Hema, Penner, Oueda, Dubois, Rödel, Kabré, and Ohler, 2020, Zoosystema, 42: 547–582, discussed records, identification, and habitat in Burkina Faso. 

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