Alsodes nodosus (Duméril and Bibron, 1841)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Alsodidae > Genus: Alsodes > Species: Alsodes nodosus

Cystignathus nodosus Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 413. Holotype: MNHNP 763 (2 specimens), according to Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 27; see Ortiz and Lescure, 1990 "1989", Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 11: 117. Type locality: "Valparaiso", Chile.

Pleurodema nodosaGirard, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 6: 420.

Cystignathus nebulosus Girard, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 6: 422. Types: Not stated; presumablyoriginally in USNM or ANSP, but not noted in type lists and therefore presumed lost. Type locality: "Valparaiso, Chili". Provisional synonymy by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 256. Considered; without discussion, a probable synonym of Batrachyla taeniata by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 78. Cuevas in Lavilla, Rabanal, Langone, Vásquez, and Castro-Carrasco, 2019, Zootaxa, 4567: 186, briefly discussed the synonymy with Alsodes nodosus. 

Metaeus timidus Girard, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 6: 424. Type(s): Not stated; presumably originally in USNM, ASNP, or the Philadelphia Mus; but not mentioned in subsequent type lists. Type locality: "Valparaiso, Chili". Stated to be close to Bufonella (= Pseudophryne). Girard, 1858, U.S. Explor. Exped. 1838–1842, 20: 96–97, provided a very detailed redescription. Synonymy by Lavilla, Rabanal, Langone, Vásquez, and Castro-Carrasco, 2019, Zootaxa, 4567: 189. 

Eusophus nodosusCope, 1865, Nat. Hist. Rev., N.S., 5: 113.

Cacotus maculatus Günther, 1869 "1868", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1868: 482. Syntypes: Not designated although noted in BMNH by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 256; BMNH 1947.2.19.98–99 (formerly 60.9.23.4–5) according to museum records. Type locality: "Chile". Synonymy (with Cystignathus nebulosus) by Cope, 1870 "1869", Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 11: 168. Synonymy by Cei, 1960, Breviora, 118: 1–13; Cei, 1962, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 8: 25; Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 78.

Eupsophus nebulosus — Cope, 1870 "1869", Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 11: 168.

Borborocoetes nodosusBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 253.

Borborocoetes maculatusBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 256.

Paludicola muelleri Werner, 1896, Verh. Zool. Bot. Ges. Wien, 46: 358. Holotype: ZMB, according to XXX. Type locality: "Frutillar in Chile". Synonymy with Paludicola nodosa by Werner, 1898 "1897", Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Suppl., 4: 266. Synonymy by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 78.

Paludicola nodosaWerner, 1898 "1897", Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Suppl., 4: 270.

Paludicola maculataWerner, 1898 "1897", Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Suppl., 4: 270.

Borborocoetus valdivianus Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 80. Holotype: MNHNC, according to the original publication. Type locality: "cerca del pueblo de Valdivia", Chile. Considered a nomen dubium by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 276. Synonymy by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 78. (Placed previously in the synonymy of Eupsophus nodosus by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 60.)

Cystignathus? coeruleogriseus Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 97. Holotype: MNHNC, according to the original publication. Type locality: "Valdivia", Chile. Synonymy (with Eupsophus maculatus) by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 275. Synonymy by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 78. (Placed previously in the synonymy of Eupsophus nodosus by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 60.)

Cystignathus granulatus Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 98. Syntypes: MNHNC (4 specimens), according to the original publication. Type locality: "Andibus prov. Santiago", Chile. Synonymy (with Eupsophus grayii) by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 275. Synonymy by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 78. (Placed previously in the synonymy of Eupsophus nodosus by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 60.)

Cystignathus cinerascens Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 100. Holotype: MNHNC, according to the original publication. Type locality: "prov. Valdivia", Chile. Synonymy (with Eupsophus grayii) by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 275. Synonymy by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 78. (Placed previously in the synonymy of Eupsophus nodosus by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 60.)

Cystignathus zebra Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 101. Holotype: MNHNC, according to the original publication. Type locality: "in montibus de Aculeo dictis provinciae Santiago", Chile. Synonymy (with Eupsophus grayii) by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 275. Synonymy by Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 78. (Placed previously in the synonymy of Eupsophus nodosus by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 60.)

Paludicola illotus Barbour, 1922, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 35: 113. Holotype: MCZ 8314, by original designation. Type locality: "the Cordillera west of Mendoza, about 7000 alt., Argentina". Synonymy by Cei, 1976, Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Milano, 117: 162; Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 297.

Leptodactylus granulatusNieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 492.

Leptodactylus coeruleogriseusNieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 492.

Leptodactylus cinerascensNieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 492.

Leptodactylus zebraNieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 493.

Borborocoetes kriegi Müller, 1926, Zool. Anz., 65: 195. Holotype: ZSM 141/1925, now lost according to Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 171. Type locality: "Valdivia, Chile". Synonymy by Cei, 1960, Breviora, 118: 1–13; Grandison, 1961, Bull. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.), Zool., 8: 111–149; and Cei, 1962, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 8: 25.

Pleurodema illotaParker, 1927, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 9, 20: 468.

Eupsophus maculatusSchmidt, 1954, Lunds Univ. Ärsskrift, N.F., Avd. 2, 49: 5; Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 275.

Eupsophus kriegiCapurro-S., 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 293.

Eupsophus illotusGallardo, 1962, Rev. Mus. Argent. Cienc. Nat. Bernardino Rivadavia, Cienc. Zool., 8: 116.

Paludicola marmorata Gorham, 1966, Das Tierreich, 85: 118. Error for Paludicola maculata of Werner, 1898 "1897", Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Suppl., 4: 270.

Alsodes nodosusGallardo, 1970, Neotropica, 16: 83. Formas, 1978, Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ., 13: 1.

Alsodes illotusGallardo, 1970, Neotropica, 16: 83.

Eupsophus nodosusLynch, 1972, Bull. S. California Acad. Sci., 71: 7.

Eupsophus illotusLynch, 1972, Bull. S. California Acad. Sci., 71: 7.

English Names

Black Spiny-chest Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 70).

Distribution

Central Chile (Región de Coquimbo to the southern part of the Región de O’Higgins), 150–1500 m elevation.

Comment

In the Alsodes nodosus group of Formas and Vera, 1983, Copeia, 1983: 1104–1107. Vocalizations discussed by Penna, Contreras, and Veloso, 1983, Canad. J. Zool., 61: 2369–2376. See account by Cei, 1962, Batr. Chile: 72–76. Cuevas and Formas, 2005, Amphibia-Reptilia, 26: 40, considered the status of Alsodes illotus to be unclear, implying that it may be distinct. Diaz and Valencia, 1985, Copeia, 1985: 175–181, described larval morphology. See statement of geographic range, habitat, and conservation status in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 618, who rejected its presence in Argentina. See Lobos, Vidal-Maldonado, Correa-Quezada, Labra-Lillo, Díaz-Páez, Charrier, Rabanal, Díaz-Vidal, and Tala, 2013, Anf. Chile Conserv. 1–104, for photograph, comments on conservation status, and range in Chile. 

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