Museum abbreviations

The following museum abbreviations were drawn originally from Leviton et al. (1980, Museum acronyms. Second edition, Herpetol. Rev., 11: 93-102, and aaugmented and corrected (corrections in catalogue not yet completed) from  Sabaj Pérez, M.H., editor. 2020. Standard symbolic codes for institutional resource collections in herpetology and ichthyology: an online reference., version 7.1 [For most recent version see  https://asih.org/sites/default/files/2019-04/Sabaj_2019_ASIH_Symbolic_Codes_v7.1.pdf], ASIH)]. Where known, mailing addresses have been included to facilitate communication with curators.

AACRG: African Amphibian Conservation Research Group, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa. 

AAG-UFU: Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Municipality of Uberlândia, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. 

AIM: Auckland War Memorial Museum [formerly Auckland Institute and Museum, name formally changed to Auckland War Memorial Museum in 1996], Private Bag, Auckland; AIM retained for consistency.

AL-MNRJ: Adolpho Lutz collection in MNRJ.

AMG: Albany Museum, Grahamstown, South Africa. Collection transferred to the PEM in 1993.

AMNH: American Museum of Natural History, Division of Vertebrate Zoology (Herpetology), 79th Street and Central Park West, New York, New York 10024, USA.

AMS: Australian Museum, Department of Herpetology, 6–8 College Street, Sydney, New South Wales 2000, Australia.

ANDES: Museo de Historia Natural Andes, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Universidad de los Andes, Bogotá.  Formerly ULAB,

ANSP: Academy of Natural Sciences, Department of Herpetology, 19th and the Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103, USA. Contains collections formerly in Delaware Museum of Natural History and Commercial Museum of Philadelphia (also known as Philadelphia Museum).

ASIZ-AM: Academia Sinica (Taiwan) Institute of Zoology Amphibian Collection. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Biodiversity Research Museum, Taipei, Taiwan.

ASU: School of Life Sciences, Herpetology Collection, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1501, USA.

AUM: Auburn University Natural History Museum, Auburn, Alabama. 

AZM: Australian Zoological Museum, Katoomba, New South Wales, Australia (personal collection of Richard Wells according to Iverson et al., 2001, J. Herpetol. 35: 361-368, who suggested that the specimens are not available for examination).

BIUB: Mongolian Academy of Sciences, Biological Institute, Ulan Bator, Mongolia. 

BJC: Bijie [Teacher's] College, Bijie, 551700 Guizhou, P. R. China.

BMNH: Natural History Museum, London. MNHUK (Museum of Natural History, United Kingdom) is preferred by the front office, but the curators continue to employ BMNH.

BNHM: Bombay Natural History Museum, Hornbill House, Shahid Bhagat Singh Road, Mumbai 400 023, India.

BORNEENSIS: Institute for Tropical Biology and Conservation, University of Malaysia—Sabah. Also as BORN. 

BPBM: Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum, Department of Zoology, 1355 Kalihi Street, Honolulu, Hawaii 96818, USA.

BSPHM: Bayerische Staatssammlung fur Paläontologie und historische Geologie, München, Germany. (Includes the former G. Brunner collection.) [BSPG in ASIH list]

BYU: Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602, USA.

CARE: Albert R. Estrada Collection, Habana, Cuba.

CARIE: Colección de Anfibios y Reptiles del Instituto de Ecología,  A.C., Xalapa, Veracruz, Mexico

CAS-SU: Stanford University collection in CAS.

CAS: California Academy of Sciences, Department of Herpetology, Golden Gate Park, San Francisco, California 94118, USA.

CBF:  Colección Boliviana de Fauna, Herpetología, Calle 26, Cota-Cota, La Paz, Bolivia.

CCB: Central College, Faculty of Science, Bangalore University, Bangalore, India.

CDZMTU: Central Department of Zoology, Tribuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu, Nepal. 

CENAI: Centro Nacional de Iológia, Buenos Aires, Argentina; now in MACN.

CET: Centro de Estudios Tropicales, Sevilla, Spain.

CFBH: Celio  F.B. Haddad Collection; to be deposited in the Departamento de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Campus de Rio Claro, São Paulo, Brazil.

CGRB: Conservation Genetic Resource Bank, Seoul National University, Republic of

Korea (formerly Conservation Genome Resources Bank for Korean Wildlife, College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University, Korea. 

CHAS: Chicago Academy of Sciences, Chicago, Illinois, USA.

CHECOA: Coleção Herpetológica de Referência do Centro de Ecologia e Conservação Ambiental, Universidade Católica do Salvador, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. 

CHINM: Instituto Nacional de Microbiología, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Transferred to MACN.

CHM: Charleston Museum, 121 Rutledge Avenue, Charleston, South Carolina 29401, USA. Herp specimns now transferred to North Carolina Museum of Natural Science (NCSM), Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.

CHUNB: Coleção Herpetológica da Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, D.F., Brazil.

CIB: Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 416, Chengdu, 610041 Sichuan, P.R. China.

CJ: Centro Jambatu de Investigación y Conservación de Anfibios, Quito, Ecuador

CM: Carnegie Museum, Department of Herpetology, 4400 Forbes Avenue, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA.

CNHM: Chongqing Natural History Museum, Chongqing, P.R. China.  

CORBIDI: Centro de Ornitología y Biodiversidad, Lima, Peru.

CRE: Costa Rica Expeditions, now accessioned into LACM.

CU: Cornell University, Division of Biological Sciences, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA.

CVULA: Coleccion Vertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias, La Hechicera, Universidad de los Andes, Mérida 5101, Venezuela. Formerly UALM.

CUMZ: Chulalongkorn University, Zoological Museum, 254 Phyathai Road, Patumwan, Bangkok, Thailand. 10330.

CZACC: Colección Zoología, Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, Habana, Cuba. Formerly IZ (Instituto de Zoologia

DBCUCH: Universidad de Chile, Departamento de Biología Celular y Genética, Casilla 6556, Santiago 7, Chile. Now housed in MNHNC.

DBSNNU: Department of Biology, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, 710062 Shaanxi, P.R. China. [SNUIZ in ASIH list]

DCN-UNRC: Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Argentina.

DFCH-USFQ: Diego F. Cisneros-Heredia Collection, College of Biological and Environmental Sciences, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Casilla Postal 17-12-841, Quito, Ecuador.

DHMECN: División de Herpetología, Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales, Quito, Ecuador.

DZSJRP: División de Herpetología, Museo Ecuatoriano de Ciencias Naturales, Quito, Ecuador.

EBD: Estación Biológica de Doñana, Sevilla, Spain.

EBRG: Museo de la Estación Biología de Rancho Grande, Maracay, Aragua, Venezuela.

EBUAP: Laboratorio de Herpetología, Escuela de Biología, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, C.P. 72570. Puebla, México.

EHT-HMS: Edward H. Taylor–Hobart M. Smith collection. Now partitioned among FMNH and UIMNH.

EHT: Edward H. Taylor Collection. Now dispersed among CAS, FMNH, and UIMNH.

EI: Eugenio Izecksohn Collection, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Departamento de Biologia Animal, 23460 Seropédica, Itaguai, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

EPN-H: Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Departamento de Ciencias Biológicas, Colección Herpetología, Apartado 25759, Quito, Ecuador.

ERA-WTN: E. Ross Allen–Wilfred T. Neill collection. Now in FSM.

EWU: Ewha Women's University Natural History Museum, 11-1 Daehyun-Dong, Seodaemun-Gu, Seoul, 120-750 Korea.

FAS: Frederick A. Shannon Collection; now accessioned into UIMNH (although some Grand Canyon specimens retained in UAZ collection).

FHGO: Fundación Herpetológica Gustavo Orcés. Av. Amazonas 3008 y calle Rumipamba, Casilla Postal 17-033-448, Quito, Ecuador.

FML: Fundación Miguel Lillo, Miguel Lillo 205, Tucumán 4000, Argentina.

FMNH: Field Museum, Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605, USA.

FPC: Floyd Potter Collection. Location currently unknown. [Eurycea pterophila]

UF: Florida State Museum (formerly FSM), University of Florida, Museum Road, Gainesville, Florida 32611, USA.

FU: Fudan University, Department of Biology, Shanghai, 200433 Guangdong, P.R. China.

FUE: Fukuoka University of Education, Munakata, Fukuoka, Japan.

GIN: Geological Institution of the Russian Federation. Moscow, Russia.

GMXU: Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 530021 Guangxi, P.R. China.

GSMNP: Great Smoky Mountains National Park [Plethodon oconoluftee]

GXMESGXUA: Guangxi Maoershan National Reserve collection, Guilin 541300, Guangxi, P.R. China.

GXMU: Guangxi Medical University, Nanning, 530021 Guangxi, P.R. China.

GXNHM: Guanxi Natural History Museum, Nanning, 530012 Guangxi, P. R. China.

GXNU: Guangxi Normal University, Guilin, 541004 Guangxi, P.R. China.

HAINNU: Department of Biology, Hainan Normal University, Haikou City, 571158 Hainan Province, P.R. China.

HENNU: College of Life, Henan Normal University, Xinxiang 453007, P.R. China.

HLD: Hessisches Landesmuseum, Darmstadt, Germany.

HLMD: Hessisches Landesmuseum Darmstadt, Germany.

HNNU: Department of Biology, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, 410081 Hunan, P.R. China.

HNNUL: College of Life Science, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081, Hunan, P.R. China. 

HTC: Hangzhou Teachers College (also known in English as Hangzhou Normal University), Hangzhou, 310036 Zhegjiang, P.R. China.

HU: Hangzhou University. Note: in 1998 Hangzhou University,Zhengjiang University, Zhejiang Agricultural University, Zhejiang Medical University were officially combined into Zhejiang University, Hangzhou,  Zhejiang, P. R. China.

HUJ: Hebrew University, Department of Zoology, Jerusalem, Israel.

IABHU : Institute for Amphibian Biology, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University, Higashihiroshima 739-8526, Japan

IASST: Museum. Institute of Advanced Study in Science and Technology, Paschim Boragaon, Guwahati -781035 Assam, India.

IAVH: Instituto de Ivestigación de los Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humboldt, Villa de Leiva, Boyacá, Colombia. (Formerly IND-AN)

IBAUNC: Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Instituto de Biología Animal, Centro Universitario, Parque General San Martín, 5500 Mendoza, Argentina. (formerly IBMUNC)

IBUNAM: Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. 04510, Mexico.

ICN: Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Museo de Historia Natural, Apartado 7495, Bogotá, Colombia.

IFAN: Instituto Fondamental d’Afrique Noire, B.P. 206, Université de Dakar, Dakar, Senegal.

IND-AN: Amphibian Collection, Instituto Nacional de los Recursos Naturales Renovables y del Ambiente, Bogotá, Colombia. (now IAvH)

INHS: Illinois Natural History Survey, 607 East Peabody Drive, Champaign, Illinois 61820, USA. (Now maintains UIMNH collections.)

INPA: Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Manaus, Brazil.

IOC: Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, C.P. 926, Avenida Brasil, Manguinhos, 20.000 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

IPG: Institut Pasteur de Guyane, Cayenne, French Guiana. 

IRSNB: Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles de Belgique, 29 Rue Vautier, 1000 Bruxelles, Belgium. (Formerly MRHN, Museum Royal d'Histoire Naturelle, Belgium.)

IZ: Instituto de Zoología, Academia de Ciencias de Cuba, Habana. Now in CZACC.

IZUA: Universidad Austral de Chile, Instituto de Zoología, Valdivia, Chile. Amphibian collection destroyed by fire on 3 December 2007.

IZUC: Universidad de Concepción, Instituto de Zoología, Concepción, Chile.

IZUG: Istituto di Zoologia dell’Università, Via Balbi 5, 16126 Genova, Italy.

IZUW: Institut für Zoologie der Universität Wien, Wien, Austria.

JJ: Jorge Jim Private Collection, Deparatmento de Zoologia, IBBMA–UNESP, Botucatu, São Paulo, Brazil.

JLA: Jean-Luc Amiet Collection; now in MHNG.

KIZ: Kunming Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, 650223 Yunnan, 650223, P.R. China.

KM: Muzeum Przyrodnicze Uniwersytetu Jagiellonskiego, ul. Krupnicza 50, Kraków, Poland.

KU: University of Kansas, Museum of Natural History, Division of Herpetology, Lawrence, Kansas 66045, USA.

KUHE: Kyoto University, Graduate School of Human and Environmental Studies, Kyoto 606, Japan.

KUM: Kyushu University Museum Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan.

LACM: Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Section of Herpetology, 900 Exposition Boulevard, Los Angeles, California 90007, USA.

Lanza Collection: Personal collection of Benedetto Lanza.

LCFM: Musée d’Histoire Naturelle, 2300 La-Chaux-de-Fond, Switzerland.

LE-UBIPRO: Julio A. Lemos-Espinal field series in the collection of Unidad de Biología, Tecnología y Prototipos, Facultad de Estudio Superiores Iztacala, Tlalnepantla, México, Mexico.

Leverian Museum: Collection now widely dispersed and types not now known to exist.

LIHUBA: Universidad de Buenos Aires, Laboratorio de Investigaciones Herpetológicas, now in MACN.

LIU: M. Liu personal collection [Rana huanranensis]

LIV: Liverpool Museum, William Brown Street, Liverpool L3 8EN, United Kingdom.

LSUMZ: Louisiana State University, Museum of Natural Science, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70893, USA.

LSUS: Louisiana State University, Shreveport.

LTHC: Liupanshui Normal (formerly Teachers Higher) College, Department of Biology, Liupanshui City, 553004 Guizhou, China.

LZUH: Laboratoire de Zoologie, Université de Hanoi, Vietnam.

MACN: Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales “Bernardino Rivadavia”, Sección Herpetología, Avenida Angel Gallardo 470, 1405 Buenos Aires, Argentina.

MAD: Museo Arqueologica de Deya. Mallorca, Spain.

MAP: Musée d'Anthropologie Prehistorique. Monte Carlo, Monaco.

MBL: Museu Bocage, Universidade de Lisboa, Rua da Escola Politécnica, Lisboa 2, Portugal. Collection destroyed by fire on 18 March 1978.

MBML: Museu de Biologia Mello Leitão, 29.650 Santa Teresa, Espiritu Santo, Brazil.

MBUCV: Universidad Central de Venezuela, Museo de Biología, Apartado 59058, Los Chaguaramos, Caracas, Venezuela.

MCN: Museu de Ciências Naturais, Fundação Zoobotânica do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

MCNAM: Museu de Ciências Naturais, Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

MCNG: Museo de Ciencias Naturales. Guanare, Portuguesa 3310, Venezuela. 

MCP: Museu de Ciências e Tecnologia da PUCRS, Porto Alegre, Brazil.

MCP: Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul, Museu de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Avenida Ipiranga 6681, Caixa Postale 1429, 90000 Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul.

MCVR: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Lung, Porta Vittoria No. 9, I-37129 Verona, Italy.

MCZ: Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138, USA.

MCZMI: Department of Zoology, Modern College, Pune, Maharashtra, India.

MD: Museu Regional do Dundo, C.P. 54, Dundo, Chitato, Luanda-Norte, Angola.

MDUG: Universidad de Guanajuato, Museo “Alfredo Dugès”, Guanajuato, Mexico.

MGAB: Muzeul de Istorie Naturala “Grigore Antipa”, Soseaua Kisseleff1, Sectorul 1, 79744 Bucharest 63, Romania.

MGP: Museo di Geologia e Paleontologia. Pisa, Italy.

MHNC: Museo de Historia Natural de Cochabamba, Cochabamba, Bolivia.

MHNCI: Museu de Historia Natural Capao da Imbuia, Rua Prof. Benedito Conceicao 407, 82810-080 Curitiba, Parana, Brazil.

MHNCP: Departamento de Herpetología del Museo de Historia Natural del Cusco, Universidad Nacional de San Antonio Abad del Cusco, Plaza de Armas del Cusco s/n, Cusco, Peru

MHNCSJ: Museo de Historia Natural, Colegio San José, Medellín, Colombia.

MHNG: Museum d'Histoire Naturelle, Route de Malagnou, C.P. 284, 1211 Geneva 6, Switzerland.

MHNJP: Museo de Historia Natural “Javier Prado”; now MHNSM.

MHNLS: Museo de Historia Natural La Salle, Caracas, Venezuela. Formerly SCN.

MHNM: Museo de Historia Natural de Montevideo, Enc. Herpetología, Casilla de Correo 399, Montevideo, Uruguay.

MHNN: Museé d'Histoire Naturelle de Neuchâtel, Neuchâtel, Switzerland.

MHUA-A: Museo de Herpetología, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia. 

MK: National Museum of Kenya, P.O. Box 40658, Nairobi, Kenya.

MLP: Museo La Plata, Collection Herpetología, Paseo del Bosque, 1900 La Plata, Argentina.

MLS: Museo del Instituto de La Salle, Apartado Aéreo 27389, Calle 11, No. 1–69, Bogotá, Colombia.

MLU: Martin-Luther-Universität, Zoologisches Institut, Domplatz 4, 4020 Halle, Germany.

MM: Magdeburg Museum, Magdeburg, Germany.

MMK: McGregor Museum, P.O. Box 316, Kimberley 8300, Northern Cape Province, South Africa.

MMUS: University of Sydney, Macleay Museum, Sydney, New South Wales 2006, Australia.

MNCN: Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, José Gutierrez Abascal, 2, 28006 Madrid, Spain.

MNH: Musei Nacionalis Hungarici (Természettudományi Múzeum), Baross u. 13 24, P.O.B. 37, 1088 Budapest, Hungary.

MNHHWU: Museum of Natural History Wroclaw University, Sienkiewicza str. 21, PL-50-335 Wroclaw Poland. (formerly Breslau Museum?)

MNHNC: Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Chile, Casilla 787, Santiago, Chile.

MNHNCU: Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Havana, Cuba.

MNHNP: Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Laboratoire des Amphibiens et Reptiles, 25 Rue Cuvier, 75005 Paris, France.

MNHNPA: Colección Herpetológica del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural del Paraguay. Asunción, Paraguay.

MNHSC: Museum of Natural History and Science, 1301 Western Avenue, Cincinnati, OH 45203-1130, USA. (formerly CSNM, Cincinnati Society of Natural History.)

MNK: Museo de Historia Natural "Noel Kempff Mercado", Avenida Irala 565, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia.

MNKNU: Museum of Nature of the Kharkiv National University, 8 Trinkler St., Kharkiv,  61022 Ukraine. Formerly SZKU.

MNM: Muzium Negara Malaysia/National Museum of Malaysia, Jalan Damansara, 50566 Kuala Lumpur (formerly the Selangor Museum).

MNMH: Museum of North Manchuria. Harbin, China.

MNRJ: Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Museu Nacional do Rio de Janeiro, Quinta da Boa Vista, s/no., 20.942 Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

MONZ: Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa, Wellington, New Zealand.

MPEG: Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi, Caixa Postal 3999, 66.040 Belém, Brazil.

MRAC: Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Steenweg op Leuven, 1980 Tervuren, Belgium.

MRGS: Museu do Rio Grande do Sul, C.P. 1188, 90.000 Pôrto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

MRHN: Now IRSNB.

MRSN: Museo Regionale di Scienze Naturali, Via Giovanni Giolitti 36, 10123, Torino, Italy. 

MSNG: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova "Giacomo Doria", Via Brigata Liguria 9, 16121 Genova, Italy.

MSNM: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, Corso Venezia 55, 20121 Milano, Italy.

MSU: The Museum, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824-1045, USA.

MTD: Senckenberg Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden(formerly MTKD: Staatliche Naturhistorische Sammlungen Dresden, Museum für Tierkunde), Königsbrücker Landstrasse 159, 01109 Dresden, Germany.

MTSN: Museu Tridentino di Scienze Naturali, Trento, Italy.

MU: Midwestern [now State] University, Wichita Falls, Texas.

MUJ: Lorenzo Uribe Museum of Natural History, Pontificia Universidad Javierana, Bogotá, Colombia.

MUP: Universidade do Pôrto, Museu do Historia Natural, Pôrto, Portugal.

Musee Hoang-Ho Pai-Ho: Musee Hoang-Ho Pai-Ho. Now Tianjin Natural History Museum. Tianjin, Hebei, China.

MZF: Finnish Museum of Natural History, Helsinki, Finland. 

MUSM: Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, Avenida Arenas 11434, Lima, Peru (formerly MHNSM; formerly MHNJP: Museo de Historia Natural "Javier Prado".

MZUB: Museo di Zoologia, Università di Bologna, Bologna, Italy.

MZUC: Museo de Zoología, Universidad de Concepción, Chile. (same as IZUC?) Telmatobius fronteriensis Eupsophus contulmoensis

MZUEFS: Coleção Herpetologica do Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santa, Campus Universitário, Avenida Universitária, 44031-060 Feira de Santa, Bahia, Brazil.

MZUF: Università di Firenze, Museo Zoologico "La Specola", Via Romana 17, 50125 Firenze, Italy.

MZUSP: Universidade de São Paulo, Museu de Zoologia, Avenida Nazareth 481, C.P. 7172, 01000 São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

MZUT: Museo di Zoologia. Instituto di Zoologia e Anatomia Comparata Universitá di Torino, Via Giolitti 34, 10123, Torino Italy. Now housed with MRSN.

MZUTI: Museo de Zoología, Universidad Tecnológica Indoamérica, Quito, Ecuador.

MZV: Instytut Zoologii, ul. Wilcza 64, 00679 Warsaw, Poland.

National Center for Reference Collection of Thailand; now moved to the Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research, Techno Thani, Pathum Thani Province, Thailand.

NCHZOOL: National Chung-Hsien University collection of amphibians and reptiles. Taiwan. 

NCSM: North Carolina Museum of Natural Scieces, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA.

NHM: Naturhistorisches Museum, Bernastrasse 15, 3005 Bern, Switzerland.

NHMB: Naturhistorisches Museum, Augustinergasse 2, 4001 Basel, Switzerland.

NHMC: Natural History Museum of Crete, Leof. Sofokli Venizelou, Iraklio 712 02, Greece. 

NHMG: Naturhistoriska Museet, Box 11049, Slottskogen, 40030 Göteborg, Sweden.

NHMGUI: Natural History Museum of Guangxi. 

NHMT: National Science Museum of Thailand

NHMUK: Natural History Museum, United Kingdom. Formerly BMNH (British Museum [Natural History]). The Natural History Museum, Department of Zoology, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom. (Formerly the British Museum [Natural History].)

NHMW: Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, 1. Zoologische Abteilung, Burgring 7, 1010 Vienna, Austria

NHRM: Naturhistoriska Rijkmuseet, Section for Vertebrate Zoology, Roslagsvägen 120, Box 50007, 104 05 Stockholm 50, Sweden.

NIEA: Northwestern Institution of Endangered Animals. [Batrachuperus taipaiensis]

NMB: National Museum. Bloemfontein, Rep. South Africa.

NMC: Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Canada.

NMK: National Museums of Kenya, Museum Hillis, Box 40658, 00100, Nairobi, Kenya. NMNHI: National Museum of Natural History, New Delhi, India.

NMNS: National Museum of Natural Science, Taichung,Taiwan.

NMNZ: National Museum of New Zealand, Wellington, New Zealand (formerly  Dominion Museum)

NMP: Natal Museum, Loop Street, Pietermaritzburg 3201, Natal, South Africa.

NMP6V: Department of Zoology, National Museum, Prague, Czech Republic.

NMSL: Sri Lanka National Museum, PO Box 854, Colombo 07, Sri Lanka.

NMV: National Museum of Victoria, 285–321 Russell Street, Melbourne, Victoria 3000, Australia.

NMZB: National Museum of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box 240, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

NMZL: National Museum of Zambia, Livingstone, Zambia.

NTM: Northern Territory Museum), Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. (Now MAGNT:  Museum and Art Gallery of the Northern Territory, Darwin, Australia.)

NTNUB: National Taiwan Normal University, Department of Biology, 162 East Ho Ping Road, Sec. 1, Taipei, Taiwan 117, China.

NTUMA: National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Road IV, Taipei, Taiwan 107, China.

NWIPB: Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Chinese Academy of Science, Xining, 810008 Qinghai, P.R. China.

NWIPB: Northwest Institute of Plateau Biology, Xining, 810008 Qinghai, P.R. China.

NWUX: Department of Biology, Northwestern University, Xian, 710069 Shaanxi, P. R. China.

NYSM: New York State Museum, Cultural Education Center, Empire State Plaza, Albany, New York 12230, USA.

NZMS: Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, National Zoological Museum, Ruski 1, Sophia, Bulgaria.

OMNH: Osaka Museum of Natural History, Nagai Park, Higashi-sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 546, Japan.

OMNH-N: The Sam Noble Oklahoma State Museum of Natural History, 2401 Chautauqua Avenue, Norman, Oklahoma 73072, USA.

OSUS: Oklahoma State University, Department of Zoology, Stillwater, Oklahoma 74074, USA.

OUM: Oxford University Museum, Parks Road, Oxford, United Kingdom.

PEM: Port Elizabeth Museum, Port Elizabeth, Republic of South Africa.

PM: Philadelphia Museum: defunct in 1856, collections then transferred to P.T. Barnum's "American Museum" (not AMNH) (collections destroyed by fire in 1865) and "Boston Society of Natural History";, the herpetology collection going to the MCZ in 1914.

PNM: Philippine National Museum, Manila, Philippines.

PSM: Slater Museum of Natural History, University of Puget Sound, 1500 N. Warner Street, Tacoma, Washington 98416, USA.

PSO-CZ: Universidad de Nariño, Pasto, Colombia.

QCAZ: Museo de Zoología, Pontifica Universidad Católica del Ecuador, Apartado 17-01-2184, Quito, Ecuador.

QM: Queensland Museum, Gregory Terrace, Fortitude Valley, Brisbane, Queensland 4006, Australia.

QVM: Queen Victoria Museum, Wellington Street, Launceston, Tasmania 7250, Australia.

RDB: R. Donoso-Barros Collection; now in IZUC.

RGMC: now MRAC.

RM: Raffles Museum. Now ZRC.

RMNH:  Naturalis (Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum; formerly Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie), Postbus 9517, 2300RA Leiden, The Netherlands.

RMNHB: Regional Museum of Natural History, Bhubaneswar, Orissa, India.

ROM: Royal Ontario Museum, Department of Herpetology, 100 Queens Park, Toronto, Ontario M5S 2C6, Canada.

SAM: South African Museum, P.O. Box 61, Cape Town 8000, Western Cape Province, South Africa.

SAMA: South Australia Museum, North Terrace, Adelaide, South Australia 5000, Australia.

SBC: Sarawak Biodiversity Centre Zoological Museum, Semenggoh, Sarawak, Malaysia.

SCUM: Zoological Museum of the School of Life Science, Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China.

SDNHM: San Diego Natural History Museum, Department of Herpetology, PO Box 1390, San Diego, CA 92112, USA.

SFI: State Forest Research Institute, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh, India.

SIU: Southern Illinois University, Herpetology Collection, Department of Zoology, Illinois 62901, USA.

SM: Strecker Museum, Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798, USA.

SMF: Forschungsinstitut und Natur-Museum Senckenberg, Senckenberg-Anlage 25, 6000 Frankfurt-am-Main 1, Germany.

SMK: Sarawak Museum, Jl. Tun Hj. Openg, Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia.

SMM: Sabah Museum, Locked Bag 2015, 88566 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia.

SMNS: Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde, Schloss Rosenstein, 7000 Stuttgart 1, Germany.

SMW: State Museum, Windhoek, Namibia.

SPCS: Sergio P. Carvalho e Silva, Departamento de Zoologia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundão, 21910 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

SPM: Sabah Parks, PO Box 10626 88806, Kota Kinabalu, Sabaha, Malaysia. [Leptolalax arayaiAnsonia anotis]

STC: Sichuan Teachers College, Nanchong, 637002 Sichuan, P.R. China.

SU: Stanford University, now in CAS.

SYNU: Shenyang Normal University, Shengyang, 110034 Liaoning, P. R. China.

SZE: Zoology Department, Aegean University, Science Faculty, Biology Division, Bornova-Izmir, Turkey.

SZKU:  See MNKNU.

TCWC: Texas Cooperative Wildlife Collection, Department of Wildlife Science, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas 77843, USA.

THNHM: National Science Museum, Thailand Natural History Museum, Technopolois, Klong 5, Klong Luang, Patumthani 12120, Thailand. (Presumably now includes the former National Center for Reference Collections of Thailand.)

TIU: University of Tokyo [formerly Tokyo Imperial University], Science College Museum, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan. Formerly Tokyo Imperial University. 

TMAG: Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, GPO Box 1164, Hobart, Tasmania 7001, Australia.

TMP: Ditsong  National Museum of Natural History (formerly Transvaal Museum), P.O. Box 413, Pretoria 0001, Transvaal, South Africa.

TNHC: Texas Memorial Museum, Texas Natural History Collection, 24th and Trinity, Austin, Texas 78705, USA.

TNHM: Trivandrum Natural History Museum. Trivandrum, Kerala, India. 

TNHMP: Tianjin Natural History Museum. Tianjin, 300074, China. (Formerly Musee Hoang-Ho Pai-Ho.)

TOYA: Toyama Science Museum, Toyama 939, Niigata University, Niigata 950–21, Japan.

TTU: Texas Tech University, Museum, Box 43191, Lubbock, TX 79409-3191, USA.

TU: Tulane University, Museum of Natural History, F. Edward Hebert Research Center, Belle Chasse, LA 70037, USA.

TZM: National Science Museum [= Kokuritsu Kagaku Hakabutsukan], Hyakunin-cho, 3-23-1, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 160, Japan.

UADBA: Université d'Antananarivo, Département de Biologie Animale, Atntananarivo, Madagascar.

UAZ: Amphibian and Reptile Collection, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, Tucson 85720, Arizona, USA.

UCM: University of Colorado Museum, Herpetology Collection, Campus Box 315, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309, USA.

UCR: Coleccion de Herpetología, Escuela de Biología, Universidad de Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

UFBA: Museu de Zoologia, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, BA, Brazil

UFC: Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil.

UG-CSBD: University of Guyana, Center for the Study of Biological Diversity, Georgetown, Guyana.

UIMNH: University of Illinois, Museum of Natural History, Urbana, Illinois 61801, USA. (Now maintained at by INHS.)

UKMHC (formerly HC): Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Herpetological Collection, Bangi, Malaysia.

ULABG: Universidad de los Andes, Departamento de Geografia, Mérida, Venezuela/

ULBF: Univ. Ljubljana, Slovenia, Biotechnical Faculty, Department of Biology.

UM:  Umtali Museum; now NMZB.

UMB: übersee Museum Bremen, Bahnhofsplatz 13,
D-28195 Bremen, Germany.

UMKL: University of Malaya, Zoology Department, Lembah Pantai, Kuala Lumpur 22–11, Malaysia.

UMMP: University of Michigan Museum of Paleontology, 1109 Geddes Avenue, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1079.

UMMZ: University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104, USA.

UMZ: University Museum of Zoology, Cambridge University, Cambridge, Department of Zoology, Downing Street, Cambridge, CB2 3EJ, UK.

UNIMAS: Institute of Biodiversity and Environmental Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300, Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia.

UNIRIO: Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Biologia, Av. Brigadeiro Trompowsky, s/no. CCS.Bl. A. Ilha do Fundão, CEP 21941-590, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. 

UNNEC: Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional del Nordeste, Corrientes, Argentina.

UP: University of Papua and New Guinea, Biology Department, University P.O. Box 4820, Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea.

UPRM: Universidad de Puerto Rico, Departamento de Biología, Mayagüez, Puerto Rico 00708, USA.

UPRP: Universidad de Puerto Rico, Departamento de Biología, Río Piedras, Puerto Rico 00931, USA.

URP: Museo de Historia Natural, Universidad Ricardo Palma, Av. Benavides cdra. 54, Santiago de Surco, Lima, Peru.

USM: Biological Sciences Program, School of Distance of Eucation, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USNM, Penang, Malaysia.

USNM: National Museum of Natural History, Division of Amphibians and Reptiles, Washington, D.C. 20560, USA.

UTA: University of Texas at Arlington, Department of Biological Sciences, UTA Box 19489, Arlington, Texas 76019, USA.

UTEP: University of Texas at El Paso, Centennial Museum, 500 West University Avenue, El Paso, TX 79968-0519, USA.

UU: University of Utah, Department of Biology, 1400 E. 2nd South Street, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112, USA.

UVC: Museo de Vertebrados, Universidad del Valle, Cali, Colombia.

UWZM: Zoology Museum, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

UZMO: Universitetet i Oslo, Zoologisk Museum, Sarsgaten 1, Oslo 5, Norway.

WAM: Western Australia Museum, Francis Street, Perth, Western Australia 6000, Australia.

WCAB: Werner C. A. Bokermann collection, now transferred to MZUSP.

WED: William E. Duellman field series.

WHT: Wildlife Heritage Trust, 95 Cotta Road, Colombo 8, Sri Lanka.

XNC: Department of Biology, Xinxiang Normal College, Xinxiang, 453003 Henan, P.R. China.

YPM: Yale Peabody Museum of Natural History, 170 Whitney Avenue, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06520, USA.

YT:  Dept Life Sciences and Technology, Yantai Normal UniversityCollege, Yantai, 264025 Shandong, P.R. China. 

YU: Yunnan University, Kunming, 650091 Yunnan, P.R. China.

ZDEU: Zoology Department, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey.

ZFMK: Zoologisches Forschungsinstitut und Museum Alexander Koenig, Herpetologische Abteilung, Adenauerallee 150-164, 5300 Bonn-1, Germany.

ZIAU: Zoological Institute of Antananarivo University; now UACBA.

ZIHU: Hiroshima University, Zoological Institute, 1-1-89 Higashi-senda-machi, Naka-ku, Hiroshima 30, Japan.

ZIK: Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute, 252.150 Kiev: 30, Ukraine.

ZISP: Zoological Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg 199034, Russia. (Formerly ZIL, Zoological Institute, Leningrad, USSR Academy of Sciences, Leningrad.)

ZIUG: Zoologisches Institut, Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany. Transferred to ZFMK in 1977.

ZIUS: Universitetes Stockholm, Zoologiska Institutionen, Box 6801, 113 86 Stockholm, Sweden.

ZIUU: Uppsala Universitet, Zoologiska Museum, Villvägen 9, Box 561, 75 122 Uppsala, Sweden.

ZIUW: Universität Wien, Zoologisches Institut, Dr.-Karl-Lueger-Ring 1, 1010 Wien, Austria.

ZIUZ: Sveuciliste u Zagrebu (University of Zagreb) Zoological Institute, P. O. Box 815, Trg Marsala Tita 14, 41000 Zagreb, Croatia.

ZMA: Universiteit van Amsterdam, Zoologisch Museum, Plantage Middenlaan 53, Amsterdam: C, Netherlands.

ZMADYU: Zoology Museum of Adıyaman University, Adıyaman, Turkey. 

ZMB: Universität Humboldt, Zoologisches Museum, Invalidenstrasse 43, 10115 Berlin, Germany.

ZMBH: Zemaljski Muzej Bosne i Hercegovine (= National Museum of Bosnia and Herzegovina), Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

ZMC: Zunyi Medical College, 563003 Guizhou, P. R. China.  [Pseudohynobius kuankuoshuiensis]

ZMG: Zoologischen Museums Greifswald. Griefswald, Germany.

ZMH: Zoologisches Museum für Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King Platz 5, 2000 Hamburg 13, Germany.

ZMK: Zoological Musem, Kristiania (now Oslo), Norway.

ZMLU: Lunds Universitet, Zoologiska Institutionen, Helgonavägen 3, 223 62 Lund, Sweden.

ZMM: M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Zoological Museum, Ul. Herzena 6, 103009 Moscow K-9, Russia.

ZMNH: Zhejiang Museum of Natural History, Hangzhou, 310014 Zhejiang, P.R. China.

ZMUC: Universitets København, Zoologisk Museum, Universitetsparken 15, 2100 København, Denmark.

ZMZ: Zoologisches Museum, Universitat Zurich, Kinstergasse 16, jCH-8006 Zurich Switzerland

ZRC: Zoological Reference Collection, Department of Zoology, University of Singapore, Bukit Timah Road, Singapore 10. Formerly National Museum and formerly Raffles Museum.

ZSI-E: Zoological Survey of India, Eastern Regional Station, Fruit Garden, Risa Colony, Shillong - 793003, Meghalaya, India.

ZSI-M: Zoological Survey of India, Mylapore, Madras, India. Now ZSI-SRS.

ZSI-NRS: Zoological Survey of India, Northern Regional Station, 218 Kaulagarh Road, Post IPE, Dehra Dunn, Uttar Pradesh 248195 India.

ZSI-S: Now ZSI-E.

ZSI-SRS: Zoological Survey of India, Southern Regional Station, 100, Santhome High Road, Chennai,Tamil Nadu 600028  India.

ZSI-WGFRS: Western Ghats Field Research Station, Zoological Survey of India, Kamala Building (1 Floor), Annie Hall Road, Calicut, Kerala,673002  India.

ZSI-WRS: Zoological Survey of India, Western Regional Station, Vidyanagar, Sector 29, Opposite Akurdi Railway Station, Akurdi, Pune, Maharashtra 411038 India.

ZSIC: Zoological Survey of India, Herpetology Section, Fire-Proof Spirit Building, 27 JL Nehru Road, Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), 700 016, India. Formerly Indian Museum.

ZSM: Zoologische Staatssammlung München, Münchhausenstraße 21, 81247 München, Germany.

ZUEC: Museu de História Natural, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, 13081-970 Campinas, S.P, Brazil.

ZUFRJ: Departamento de Zoolgia, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Caixa Postal 68044, 21944-970 Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

ZVCB: Collección de Zoología Vertebrados, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la República, Iguá 4225, CP 11400, Montevideo, Uruguay.