Ischnocnema lactea (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Superfamily: Brachycephaloidea > Family: Brachycephalidae > Genus: Ischnocnema > Species: Ischnocnema lactea

Basanitia lactea Miranda-Ribeiro, 1923, Rev. Mus. Paulista, São Paulo, 13: 851. Syntypes: MZUSP 504, 828; MZUSP 828 designated lectotype by Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 15, who suggested that the paralectotype represents another species. Type locality: "Iguape, S. Paulo" and "Campo Grande", São Paulo, Brazil; restricted to "Iguape, São Paulo", Brazil, by lectotype designation. Discussed and corrected to "the area surrounding the Padre Dória road, in the Juqueriquerê River basin (coordinates 23°38′32.43″S, 45°41′39.20″W, datum = WGS84; altitude 1,010 m a.s.l.), Municipality of Caraguatatuba, State of São Paulo, Brazil" by Silva-Soares, Malagoli, Cruz, and Caramaschi, 2018, Zootaxa, 4444: 140. 

Eleutherodactylus lacteusLynch, 1968, Copeia, 1968: 875–876.

Eleutherodactylus lacteaHarding, 1983, Cat. New World Amph.: 164. Incorrect subsequent spelling. 

Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) lacteusLynch and Duellman, 1997, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 23: 226.

Ischnocnema lacteaHeinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Suppl. Inform., 104: 15; Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 27.

English Names

Iguape Robber Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 76).


Serra do Mar, state of São Paulo, Brazil. 


In the Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) binotatus series, Eleutherodactylus lacteus group of Lynch and Duellman, 1997, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 23: 226. See Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 27: 50, for account. In the Ischnocnema lactea species series of Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 27, Canedo and Haddad, 2012, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 65: 619, Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 122, and Taucce, Canedo, Parreiras, Drummond, Nogueira-Costa, and Haddad, 2018, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 128: 123–146 (who noted a closely related unnamed species). Cruz, Feio, and Caramaschi, 2009, Anf. Ibitipoca: 56–57, provided photographs and a brief account for Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Silva-Soares, Malagoli, Cruz, and Caramaschi, 2018, Zootaxa, 4444: 137–153, reported on natural history and systematics of the species. Thomé, Lyra, Lemes, Teixeira, Carnaval, Haddad, and Canedo, 2020, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 149 (106813): 1–13, discussed the molecular phylogenetics of the Ischnocnema lactea/Ischnocnema holti complex, suggesting that seven lineages are involved, of which only the lineages at the type localities bear the current names. Nevertheless, the authors hesitated to make any taxonomic recommendations.  

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