Ischnocnema parva (Girard, 1853)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Superfamily: Brachycephaloidea > Family: Brachycephalidae > Genus: Ischnocnema > Species: Ischnocnema parva

Hylodes parvus Girard, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 6: 423. Type(s): Not stated; presumably originally in USNM or ANSP. Type locality: "Rio de Janeiro, Brazil".

Hylodes (Hylodes) parvusCope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 153.

Eleutherodactylus parvusStejneger, 1904, Annu. Rep. U.S. Natl. Mus. for 1902: 582–583, by implication; Lutz, 1944, Bol. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, N.S., Zool., 17: 1.

Leptodactylus pumilio Boulenger, 1920, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 9, 5: 123. Holotype: BMNH, by original designation; BMNH 1947.2.17.35 (originally 1914.3.20.7), by museum records. Type locality: "at or near Theresopolis", Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Synonymy by Heyer, 1972, Contrib. Sci. Nat. Hist. Mus. Los Angeles Co., 231: 3.

Phrynanodus nanus Ahl, 1933, Zool. Anz., 104: 29. Holotype: NHMW 18321, according to Lynch, 1968, Copeia, 1968: 875–876. Type locality: "Ostbrasiliens, Itatiaya, Südabhang, in 1000–2000 m Höhe", State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Synonymy by Lynch, 1968, Copeia, 1968: 875–876.

Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) parvusLynch and Duellman, 1997, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 23: 230.

Ischnocnema parvaHeinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 10094; Heinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Suppl. Inform., 104: 15; Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 28.

English Names

Girard's Robber Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 78).


Restricted to the vicinity of the city of Rio de Janeiro, with cryptic species inhabiting the coastal plain of eastern São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro in southeastern Brazil. See comment. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Brazil

Endemic: Brazil


In the Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) binotatus series, Eleutherodactylus parvus group according to Lynch and Duellman, 1997, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 23: 230. See account by Heyer, Rand, Cruz, Peixoto, and Nelson, 1990, Arq. Zool., São Paulo, 31: 299–300 (who also described the call). Izecksohn and Carvalho-e-Silva, 2001, Anf. Municipio Rio de Janeiro: 85, provided a brief account and photo. Siqueira, Ananias, and Recco-Pimentel, 2004, Genet. Mol. Biol., 27: 363–372, compared the karyotypes of Eleutherodactylus binotatus, Eleutherodactylus guentheri, and Eleutherodactylus parvus. In the Ischnocnema parva species series of Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 28, Canedo and Haddad, 2012, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 65: 619 Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 122, and Taucce, Canedo, Parreiras, Drummond, Nogueira-Costa, and Haddad, 2018, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 128: 123–146 (who provided substantial evidence of several unnamed species covered under this species name. Cruz, Feio, and Caramaschi, 2009, Anf. Ibitipoca: 58–59, provided photographs and a brief account for Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Rodriguez, Börner, Pabijan, Gehara, Haddad, and Vences, 2015, Evol. Ecol., 29: 765–785 (and supplemental data), reported on phylogeographic diversity and its causes.  Gehara, Barth, Oliveira, Costa, Haddad, and Vences, 2017, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 112: 68–78, reported on molecular phylogenetics of the Ischnocnema parva complex, noting that the species, Ischnocnema parva, is likely restricted to the type locality with other parts of the nominal range inhabited by unnamed species. Andrade, Haga, and Giaretta, 2017, North-West. J. Zool., Romania, 13: 271–277, described the calls from four localities, noting variation among the sites. C.A.G. Cruz in Ferreira, Mônico, Silva, Lirio, Zocca, Mageski, Tonini, Beard, Duca, and Silva-Soares, 2019, ZooKeys, 857: 152, noted an unnamed species, "Ischnocnema aff. parva" in the region of Santa Teresa, Espírito Santo, Brazil. Silva-Soares, Ferreira, Ornellas, Zocca, Caramaschi, and Cruz, 2021, Zootaxa, 5082: 201–222, discussed phylogenetics of the unnamed species related to (or at least similar to) Ischnocnema parva

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