Ischnocnema verrucosa (Reinhardt and Lütken, 1862)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Superfamily: Brachycephaloidea > Family: Brachycephalidae > Genus: Ischnocnema > Species: Ischnocnema verrucosa

Leiuperus verrucosus Reinhardt and Lütken, 1862 "1861", Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturhist. Foren., Ser. 2, 3: 171. Holotype: ZMUC 51 according to J.D. Lynch In Frost, 1985, Amph. Species World: 334; holotype is now ZMUC 1180 according to museum records (H. Kristensen, personal commun., 24 Nov. 2010). Type locality: "Byen [= city] Juiz de Fora i Minas Geraes (altsaa fra Urskovsregionen)", Brazil.

Ischnocnema verrucosa — Reinhardt and Lütken, 1862 "1861", Vidensk. Medd. Dansk Naturhist. Foren., Ser. 2, 3: 239; Lynch and Schwartz, 1971, J. Herpetol., 5: 109; Heinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Suppl. Inform., 104: Table 2; Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 29.

Paludicola verrucosaBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 236.

Pleurodema verrucosaParker, 1927, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 9, 20: 476.

Eupsophus verrucosus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1937, O Campo, 8: 66–69. Holotype: MNRJ, not located by Miranda-Ribeiro, 1955, Arq. Mus. Nac., Rio de Janeiro, 42: 411. Type locality: "Rio Mutum [Coluna—Esprito Santo", Brazil. Given as "rio Mutum, Colatina, Espiritu Santo", Brazil by Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 40. Synonymy by Lynch, 1972, Bull. S. California Acad. Sci., 71: 9.

Eupsophus versus Gorham, 1966, Das Tierreich, 85: 120. Replacement name for Eupsophus verrucosus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1937, thought to be preoccupied.

Eleutherodactylus verrucosusBokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 40. (New combination for Eupsophus verrucosus Miranda-Ribeiro, 1937).

Eleutherodactylus verrucosusCaramaschi and Canedo, 2006, Zootaxa, 1116: 48.

English Names

Brazilian Big-headed Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 81).


Known only from the type locality in Minas Gerais, two localities in Espíritu Santo, and 3 localities in the municipalities of Camacan, Jequié, and Amargosa, state of Bahia, Brazil.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Brazil

Endemic: Brazil


See Lynch, 1972, Bull. S. California Acad. Sci., 71: 8–10, for discussion of nomenclatural confusion and redescription of the holotype. In the Ischnocnema verrucosa species series of Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 29, Canedo and Haddad, 2012, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 65: 619, Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 122, and Taucce, Canedo, Parreiras, Drummond, Nogueira-Costa, and Haddad, 2018, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 128: 123–146. Orrico, 2010, Check List, 6: 246–247, provided the record from Bahia, and discussed the range. Freitas, Souza, and Fonseca, 2011, Herpetol. Rev., 42: 385, provided a record for the Municipality of Amargosa, Bahia, Brazil, and discussed the range. Bastos and Zina, 2022, Herpetol. Notes, 15: 365–376, reported the species from Jequié municipality, Bahia, Brazil, and briefly discussed its habitat and conservation status. 

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