Ceuthomantinae Heinicke, Duellman, Trueb, Means, MacCulloch, and Hedges, 2009

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Superfamily: Brachycephaloidea > Family: Craugastoridae > Subfamily: Ceuthomantinae
581 species

Ceuthomantidae Heinicke, Duellman, Trueb, Means, MacCulloch, and Hedges, 2009, Zootaxa, 2211: 6. Type genus: Ceuthomantis Heinicke, Duellman, Trueb, Means, MacCulloch, and Hedges, 2009.

Pristimantinae Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 580. Nomen nudum.

Pristimantinae Ohler and Dubois, 2012, Alytes, 28: 165. Type genus: Pristimantis Jiménez de la Espada, 1870, by original designation. Synonymy by Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 53, but in error considering Pristimantinae the appropriate name for this taxon even though it is junior to Ceuthomantinae. 

Ceuthomantinae — Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3827: 599. Correction of subfamily name. 

English Names

Emerald-barred Frogs (Vitt and Caldwell, 2014, Herpetology, 4th Ed.: 498).


Honduras east through Central America through Colombia and Ecuador to Peru, Bolivia, northern Argentina, and Amazonian to Atlantic Forest Brazil and the Guianas; Trinidad and Tobago; Grenada, Lesser Antilles.


Ceuthomantidae (in the sense of only including Ceuthomantis) was considered the sister taxon of the remaining members of Terrarana/Brachycephaloidea (Craugastoridae and Eleutherodactylidae of this catalogue) according to the original publication. Pyron and Wiens, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 61: 543–583, confirmed this relationship using similar inferential methods and a largely similar dataset. Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 125, discovered that that this topology was highly alignment and tree-building method dependent and transferred Ceuthomantis into Pristimantinae, for which the name Ceuthomantinae is the oldest name. Blackburn and Wake, 2011, In Zhang (ed.), Zootaxa, 3148: 39–55, briefly reviewed the nomenclatural history of this taxon prior to the fusion of former Pristimantinae and Ceuthomantidae. Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 317–578, provided identification keys and accounts for the species in Guyana.

Contained taxa (581 sp.):

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