Eleutherodactylus coqui Thomas, 1966

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Superfamily: Brachycephaloidea > Family: Eleutherodactylidae > Subfamily: Eleutherodactylinae > Genus: Eleutherodactylus > Species: Eleutherodactylus coqui

Eleutherodactylus coqui Thomas, 1966, Q. J. Florida Acad. Sci., 28: 376. Holotype: MCZ 43208, by original designation. Type locality: "11.8 km S Palmer, Area Recreo La Mina, Puerto Rico".

Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) coquiHedges, 1989, in Woods (ed.), Biogeograph. W. Indies: 327; Heinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Suppl. Inform., 104: 9.

English Names

Puerto Rican Coqui (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 81; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 73; Hedges, Powell, Henderson, Hanson, and Murphy, 2019, Caribb. Herpetol., 67: 10). 

Coqui (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 81; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 9).


Throughout Puerto Rico; introduced on St. Thomas, St. John, and St. Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands, 0–1200 m, and Costa Rica; also into South Florida and Hawaii (islands of Maui, Hawaii, Kauai, and Oahu), USA.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Puerto Rico

Endemic: Puerto Rico

Introduced: Costa Rica, United States of America, United States of America - Florida, United States of America - Hawaii, United States of America - Louisiana, Virgin Islands, U.S.


In the Eleutherodactylus auriculatus group, according to the original publication, and Schwartz, 1969, Stud. Fauna Curaçao and other Caribb. Is., 30: 99–115. Introduced populations in Miami and Homestead, Florida, and New Orleans, Lousiana, USA, according to Rivero, 1984, J. Bromeliad Soc., 34: 65, although Dundee In Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 9, rejected the Louisiana record. Townsend and Stewart, 1985, Copeia, 1985: 423–436, provided a developmental staging table. Kaiser, Green, and Schmid, 1994, Canad. J. Zool., 72: 2217–2237, discussed the phylogenetic relationships of this species. In the Eleutherodactylus auriculatus section, Eleutherodactylus martinicensis series, not assigned to species group according to Hedges, 1989, in Woods (ed.), Biogeograph. W. Indies: 327. In the Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) martinicensis series, Eleutherodactylus martinicensis group of Lynch and Duellman, 1997, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 23: 222. Hawaiian records by Kraus, Campbell, Allison, and Pratt, 1999, Herpetol. Rev., 30: 21–25. Lever, 2003, Naturalized Rept. Amph. World: 189–191, discussed the introduced populations in South Florida, United States Virgin Islands, and Hawaiian Islands. Waddle, Crockett, and Rice, 2006, Herpetol. Rev., 37: 487, provided a record for St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. Velo-Antón, Burrowes, Joglar, Martínez-Solano, Beard, and Parra-Olea, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 45: 716–728, discussed deep genetic divergence among allopatric populations in Puerto Rico. In the Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) martinicensis species series, Eleutherodactylus antillensis species group, Eleutherodactylus wightmanae species subgroup of Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 59. Beard, Price, and Pitt, 2009, Pacific Sci., 63: 297–316. In the Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) antillensis species series, Eleutherodactylus wightmanae species group of Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 129. Peacock, Beard, O'Neill, Kirchoff, and Peters, 2009, Mol. Ecol., 18: 3603–3615, discussed the introduced populations in Hawaii. Christy, Clark, Gee, Vice, Vice, Warner, Tyrrell, Rodda, and Savidge, 2007, Pacific Sci., 61: 469–483, reported incidental specimens from Guam but did not think that the species was established. García-Rodríguez, Chaves, Wainwright, and Villegas, 2010, Herpetol. Rev., 41: 375, provided a record from Costa Rica. Henderson and Powell, 2009, Nat. Hist. Rept. Amph. W. Indies: 43–45, summarized the natural history literature and noted confusion in the literature between this species and Eleutherodactylus portoricensis. Stewart and Lannoo, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 492–494, and Dodd, 2013, Frogs U.S. and Canada, 2: 809–811, provided accounts that summarized the relevant literature, the latter particular with reference to the introduced Hawaii populations. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 183–191, provided a key to the species of Eleutherodactylus in Central America and provided maps and photographs of the species, including this one. Elliot, Gerhardt, and Davidson, 2009, Frogs and Toads of N. Am.: 288–289, provided an account for the introduced USA population, photos, and advertisement call. Zug, 2013, Rept. Amph. Pacific Is.: 65–67, provided a brief account for the Hawaii population and photograph. Barrantes-Madrigal, Spínola Parallada, Alvarado, and Acosta Chaves, 2019, Phyllomedusa, 18: 101–107, discussed the distribution and invasion progress of the introduced population in Costa Rica. Ríos-Franceschi, Joglar, and Thomas, 2019, Life, 7: 92–114, reported on geographic variation of advertisement calls across the islands of the Puerto Rico Bank. González-Sánchez, Johnson, González-Solís, Fucsko, and Wilson, 2021, ZooKeys, 1022: 87–90, discussed the introduced population in Costa Rica. Introduced populations in Florida and Hawaii, USA, discussed and mapped by Meshaka, Collins, Bury, and McCallum, 2022, Exotic Amph. Rept. USA: 36–38.

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