Eleutherodactylus martinicensis (Tschudi, 1838)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Superfamily: Brachycephaloidea > Family: Eleutherodactylidae > Subfamily: Eleutherodactylinae > Genus: Eleutherodactylus > Species: Eleutherodactylus martinicensis

Hylodes martinicensis Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 37, 77. Syntypes: MNHNP 4881–4883 (total of 6 specimens), according to Guibé, 1950 "1948", Cat. Types Amph. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat.: 28. Type locality: "Insel Martinique" (in error); Schwartz, 1967, Stud. Fauna Curaçao and other Caribb. Is., 24: 34–35, has shown the syntypes to be probably from Guadeloupe. Placed on the Official List of Specific Names in Zoology by Opinion 1104, Anonymous, 1978, Bull. Zool. Nomencl., 34: 223.

Hyla martinicensis Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 77. Name proposed as an objective synonym of Hylodes martinicensis to reference jar label of MNHNP syntypes.

Eleutherodactylus martinicensisDuméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 6: 620; Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 92; Stejneger, 1904, Annu. Rep. U.S. Natl. Mus. for 1902: 582-583; by implication; Barbour, 1910, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 52: 288.

Hylodes (Hylodes) martinicensisCope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 153.

Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) martinicensisHedges, 1989, in Woods (ed.), Biogeograph. W. Indies: 327; Heinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 104: 10094; Heinicke, Duellman, and Hedges, 2007, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, Suppl. Inform., 104: Table 2.

English Names

Martinique Robber Frog (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 76).

Martinique Greenhouse Frog (Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 281). 

Martinique Frog (Hedges, Powell, Henderson, Hanson, and Murphy, 2019, Caribb. Herpetol., 67: 11). 


Likely originally from Martinique or also Antigua St. Lucia and Dominica; also known from Guadeloupe, Marie-Galante, La Désirade, and Iles des Saintes, Lesser Antilles, West Indies. Introduced on St. Barthélémy and St. Martin.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Dominica, Martinique

Introduced: Antigua and Barbuda, Guadeloupe, Iles des Saintes, La Desirade, Saint Barthélemy, Saint-Martin/Sint Maarten


In the Eleutherodactylus auriculatus group according to Schwartz, 1969, Stud. Fauna Curaçao and other Caribb. Is., 30: 101. Kaiser, 1992, J. Herpetol., 26: 264–273, suggested that the presence of this species on St. Barthélémy might be due to human introduction. See account by Kaiser and Hardy, 1994, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 582: 1–4. Kaiser, Green, and Schmid, 1994, Canad. J. Zool., 72: 2217–2237, discussed the phylogenetic relationships of this species. In the Eleutherodactylus auriculatus section, Eleutherodactylus martinicensis series, Eleutherodactylus martinicensis group, according to Hedges, 1989, in Woods (ed.), Biogeograph. W. Indies: 327. In the Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) martinicensis series, Eleutherodactylus martinicensis group, of Lynch and Duellman, 1997, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 23: 228. Hawaiian records by Kraus, Campbell, Allison, and Pratt, 1999, Herpetol. Rev., 30: 21–25. Savage, 2002, Amph. Rept. Costa Rica: 227, placed this species in his Eleutherodactylus martinicensis series, Eleutherodactylus martinicensis group. Lever, 2003, Naturalized Rept. Amph. World: 196–197, discussed the introduced populations. In the Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) martinicensis species series, Eleutherodactylus martinicensis species group of Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 59–60. In the Eleutherodactylus (Eleutherodactylus) martinicensis species series of Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 129. See statement of geographic range, habitat, and conservation status (as Eleutherodactylus martinicensis) in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 620. Lorvelec, Pascal, Pavis, and Feldmann, 2007, Appl. Herpetol., 4: 131–161, discussed the controversy surrounding the original range and subsequent introductions. Henderson and Powell, 2009, Nat. Hist. Rept. Amph. W. Indies: 64–65, summarized the natural history literature. Dodd, 2013, Frogs U.S. and Canada, 2: 812, noted that a report of this species in Hawaii was based on misidentified Eleutherodactylus coqui.  De Massary, Bochaton, Bour, Dewynter, Ineich, Vidal, and Lescure, 2018, Bull. Soc. Herpetol. France, 166: 59-78, reported the species from Saint-Barthélemy in the Lesser Antilles. De Massary, Bour, Dewynter, Ineich, Vidal, and Lescure, 2017, Bull. Soc. Herpetol. France, 164: 37–54, reported the species from Saint Martin, Lesser Antilles.  

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