Eleutherodactylus planirostris (Cope, 1862)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Superfamily: Brachycephaloidea > Family: Eleutherodactylidae > Subfamily: Eleutherodactylinae > Genus: Eleutherodactylus > Species: Eleutherodactylus planirostris

English Names

Greenhouse Frog (Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 176; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 303; Liner, 1994, Herpetol. Circ., 23: 20; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 78; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 9).

Cuban Flat-headed Frog (Powell, Conant, and Collins, 2016, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. North Am., 4th ed.: 128; Hedges, Powell, Henderson, Hanson, and Murphy, 2019, Caribb. Herpetol., 67: 12).


Widespread on Cuba and the Isla de Juventud (0–720 m elevation), Little Bahama Bank, Grand Cayman and Cayman Brac; introduced in Florida, southern Louisiana, southern Mississippi, southern Alabama, southern Georgia to southeastern South Carolina, coastal Texas, and Oahu and Hawaii Is., Hawaii (USA), Hong Kong and Shenzen (China), Guam, Philippines (Mindanao, Negros, Cebu, Mactan, and Luzon), Jamaica, El Salvador (departments of La Libertad and San Salvador), Honduras (Isla de Guanaja and roughly the western half of the country), Colombia (San Andres I.), Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Suriname, Yucatan and Veracruz (Mexico) and Sint Maarten (Lesser Antilles, Netherlands), Grenada, and Nigeria. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Cuba

Introduced: China, People's Republic of, Colombia, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Grenada, Guam, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Philippines, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint-Martin/Sint Maarten, Singapore, Suriname, Turks and Caicos Islands, United States of America, United States of America - Alabama, United States of America - Florida, United States of America - Georgia, United States of America - Hawaii, United States of America - Louisiana, United States of America - Mississippi, United States of America - South Carolina, United States of America - Texas


In the Eleutherodactylus ricordii group, according to Schwartz, 1958, Am. Mus. Novit., 1873: 16. Schwartz, 1965, Stud. Fauna Curaçao and other Caribb. Is., 22: 99–101, recognized four subspecies (of which Eleutherodctylus goini, Eleutherodactylus rogersi and Eleutherodactylus casparii are now considered distinct species). Reviewed by Schwartz, 1974, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 154: 1–4 (sensu lato). Not assignable to species group according to Hedges, 1989, in Woods (ed.), Biogeograph. W. Indies: 325. In the Eleutherodactylus (Euhyas) ricordii group of Lynch and Duellman, 1997, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 23: 230. Hawaiian records by Kraus, Campbell, Allison, and Pratt, 1999, Herpetol. Rev., 30: 21–25. Johnson, Staiger, and Barichivich, 2003, Herpetol. Rev., 34: 161–162, commented on the history of colonization in Florida. Florida population discussed by Butterfield, Meshaka, and Guyer, 1997, in Simberloff et al. (eds.), Strangers in Paradise: 123–138. Lever, 2003, Naturalized Rept. Amph. World: 197–200, discussed the introduced populations in Florida, Louisiana, Jamaica, Caicos Islands, and Hawaiian Islands, as well as the possible existence of populations in Veracruz, Alabama, and Grenada. Graham, Timpe, and Giovanetto, 2008, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 494–495, provided a specific locality for Georgia, USA. Díaz and Cádiz, 2007, Herpetotropicos, Mérida, 3: 100–122, reported on the advertisement call. In the Eleutherodactylus (Euhyas) planirostris species series, Eleutherodactylus planirostris species group of Hedges, Duellman, and Heinicke, 2008, Zootaxa, 1737: 81, and of Padial, Grant, and Frost, 2014, Zootaxa, 3825: 131. McCranie, Collart, Castañeda, and Solis, 2008, Herpetol. Rev., 39: 362, noted an introduced population at San Pedro Sula, Honduras. Díaz and Cádiz, 2008, Guía Taxon. Anf. Cuba: 86–87, provided a brief account, illustration, and map. Christy, Clark, Gee, Vice, Vice, Warner, Tyrrell, Rodda, and Savidge, 2007, Pacific Sci., 61: 469–483, reported reproducing populations on Guam. Meshaka, Boundy, and Williams, 2009, J. Kansas Herpetol., 32: 13–16, discussed introduced range as a commensal in southern Louisiana, USA. See account for introduced Suriname population by Ouboter and Jairam, 2012, Amph. Suriname: 108–109. Henderson and Powell, 2009, Nat. Hist. Rept. Amph. W. Indies: 71–72, summarized the natural history literature. Meshaka, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 499–500, and Dodd, 2013, Frogs U.S. and Canada, 2: 815–818, provided accounts that summarized the relevant literature, particularly with reference to the introduced populations in the USA. Köhler, 2011, Amph. Cent. Am.: 183–191, provided a key to the species of Eleutherodactylus in Central America and provided maps and photographs of the species, including this one. McCranie and Valdés-Orellana, 2014, Herpetol. Notes, 7: 41–49, reported a population on Isla Guanaja in the Islas de la Bahia, Honduras. Elliot, Gerhardt, and Davidson, 2009, Frogs and Toads of N. Am.: 286–287, provided an account for the introduced USA populations, photos, and advertisement call. Rivalta González, Rodríguez Schettino, Mancina, and Iturriaga, 2014, Smithson. Herpetol. Inform. Serv., 145: 29–30, provided a dot map and localities for Cuba. Solis, Darinel Lainez, and Bardales Salmeron, 2014, Mesoam. Herpetol., 1: 292, provided records for Honduras. Zug, 2013, Rept. Amph. Pacific Is.: 67–68, provided a brief discussion of the introduced Hawaii and Guam populations. Mann, Mann, Winstead, and Lu, 2014, Herpetol. Rev., 45: 652, provided a range extension in southern Mississippi, USA, and discussed the ecological range within that state. Olson, Diesmos, and Beard, 2014, Herpetol. Rev., 45: 652–653, reported this invasive species for Mindanao, Philippines. McCranie and Gutsche, 2014, Herpetol. Rev., 45: 653, provided a record for La Paz, Honduras, and commented on the range in Honduras. Sy, Martyr, Achacoso, and Diesmos, 2015, Herpetol. Rev., 46: 56, reported the species on Luzon, Philippines, and on Negros, Philippines, by Sy, Martyr, and Diesmos, 2015, Herpetol. Rev., 46: 56. Sy and Salgo, 2015, Herpetol. Rev., 46: 212, provided a record for Cebu Island, Philippines. Dillman and Gibbons, 2016, Herpetol. Rev., 47: 76–77, provided a record for Charleston County, South Carolina, USA. Lee, Lau, Lau, Rao, and Sung, 2016, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 11: 85–89, reported an introduced population in Hong Kong, China. Sy, 2017, Herpetol. Rev., 48: 583, provided a record for Mactan Island, Philippines. Contreras-Calvario, Mora-Reyes, Parra-Olea, and Mendoza, 2018, Herpetol. J., 28: 96–99, provided a new record for Veracruz, Mexico, and summarized the literature for Mexican introduced populations.  De Massary, Bour, Dewynter, Ineich, Vidal, and Lescure, 2017, Bull. Soc. Herpetol. France, 164: 37–54, commented on the species from Saint Martin, Lesser Antilles. Lieto and Burke, 2019, Herpetol. Rev., 50: 474–479, discussed the spread of invasive populations in the USA. González-Sánchez, Johnson, González-Solís, Fucsko, and Wilson, 2021, ZooKeys, 1022: 91–92, discussed the introduced populations in Mexico, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Costa Rica. Antúnez-Fonseca, Juarez-Peña, Sosa Bartuano, Alvarado-Larios, Sánchez-Trejo, and Vega-Rodriguez, 2021, Caribb. J. Sci., 51: 37–43, detailed the introduced range in Honduras and provided records for El Salvador. Cubillos-Abrahams, Montes-Correa, and Vera-Pérez, 2021, Caribb. J. Sci., 51: 136–145, reported the species from San Andrés, Colombian Caribbean Islands. Frederick, Jung, and Schlochtern, 2021, Herpetol. Rev., 52: 790, provided a record of introduced population on Sint Maarten, Lesser Antilles. Guyer and Bailey, 2023, Frogs and Toads of Alabama: 139–141, provided a detailed account for the introduced population in Alabama, USA. Figueroa, Low, and Lim, 2023, Zootaxa, 5287: 38–39, provided records, and literature for this introduced species in Singapore. Hong, He, Lin, Du, Chen, Han, Zhang, Gu, Tu, Hu, Yuan, and Liu, 2022, NeoBiota, 77: 23–37, discussed the molecular phylogeography of the introductions into China. Venturina, Diesmos, Maglangit, del Prado, Ordas, Fernandez, Dans, Warguez, and Diesmos, 2023, Philipp. J. Sci., 152: 2031–2048, reported on the presence in central Mindanao, Philippines. Bassett, 2023, Reptiles & Amphibians, 30(e18486): 1–18, provided an updated county distribution map for introduced populations in Texas, USA. Introduced population in Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, and Hawaii, USA, discussed and mapped to county by Meshaka, Collins, Bury, and McCallum, 2022, Exotic Amph. Rept. USA: 39–41.     

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