Anaxyrus canorus (Camp, 1916)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Anaxyrus > Species: Anaxyrus canorus

Bufo canorus Camp, 1916, Univ. California Publ. Zool., 17: 59. Holotype: MVZ 5744 (formerly Camp 2129), by original designation. Type locality: "Porcupine Flat, 8100 feet, Yosemite National Park, Mariposa Co[unty]., California", USA.

Anaxyrus canorusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 363.

Bufo (Anaxyrus) canorus — Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 295. See comment under Bufonidae regarding how this arrangement is part of a a system that requires widespread paraphyly. 

English Names

Yosemite Toad (Grinnell and Storer, 1924, Animal Life in the Yosemite: 657; Stebbins, 1951, Amph. W. North Am.: 245; Wright and Wright, 1933, Handb. Frogs Toads U.S. Canada: ix; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 62; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 176; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 10; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 11; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 7; Stebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 210; Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2008, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 37: 3; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 6; Frost, McDiarmid, Mendelson, and Green, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 12; Frost, Lemmon, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 7).

Yosemite Park Toad (Storer, 1925, Univ. California Publ. Zool., 27: 43; Wright and Wright, 1933, Handb. Frogs Toads U.S. Canada: 56).).


High elevations of the Sierra Nevada of California, USA, from Alpine County to Fresno County, 1950 to 3445 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: United States of America, United States of America - California

Endemic: United States of America, United States of America - California


Reviewed by Karlstrom, 1973, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 132: 1–2. In the Bufo boreas group of Blair, 1972, Evol. Genus Bufo: 350. Shaffer, Fellers, Magee, and Voss, 2000, Mol. Ecol., 9: 245–257, reported on molecular geographic variation. Stebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 210-211, provided a brief account, figure, and map. Davidson and Fellers, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 400–401, provided a detailed account, map, and conservation status. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status (as Bufo canorus) in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 180, who noted that Anaxyrus exsul may be conspecific with this species. Goebel, Ranker, Corn, and Olmstead, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 50: 209–225, found the mtDNA haplotypes of Anayxrus canorus to form a polyphyletic group, with the name-bearing clade being imbedded within a clade of Anaxyrus boreas including most of that species' range and another clade related to a clade of Anaxyrus boreas centered on it's southwestern component of range. Dodd, 2013, Frogs U.S. and Canada, 1: 70–77, provided an account that summarized relevant literature. Elliot, Gerhardt, and Davidson, 2009, Frogs and Toads of N. Am.: 182–183, provided an account, photos, and advertisement call. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 177–178, provided an account of larval morphology and biology. Maier, Vandergast, Ostoja, Aguilar, and Bohonak, 2019, Evolution, 73: 2476–2496, discussed Pleistocene molecular phylogeography. 

External links:

Please note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. We are not responsible for their content.