Anaxyrus exsul (Myers, 1942)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Anaxyrus > Species: Anaxyrus exsul

Bufo exsul Myers, 1942, Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Michigan, 460: 3. Holotype: UMMZ 83357, by original designation. Type locality: "Deep Springs, Deep Springs Valley, Inyo County, California", USA.

Bufo boreas exsulSchmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 61.

Bufo exsulSavage, 1959, Am. Philos. Soc. Yr. Bk., 1959: 252; Schuierer, 1963 "1962", Herpetologica, 18: 262.

Anaxyrus exsulFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 363.

Bufo (Anaxyrus) exsul — Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 301. See comment under Bufonidae regarding how this arrangement is part of a a system that requires widespread paraphyly. 

English Names

Inyo Toad (Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 61).

Black Toad (Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 61; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 176; Stebbins, 1966, Field Guide W. North Am. Rept. Amph.: 60; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 10; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 11; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 7; Stebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 210; Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2008, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 37: 3; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 6; Frost, McDiarmid, Mendelson, and Green, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 12; Frost, Lemmon, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 8).

Deep Springs Toad (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 38).


Springs and marshes that feed into Deep Springs Lake in Deep Springs Valley, Inyo County, California, USA. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: United States of America, United States of America - California

Endemic: United States of America, United States of America - California


In the Bufo boreas group of Blair, 1972, Evol. Genus Bufo: 350. Considered by some authors to be a subspecies of Anaxyrus boreas. See comments by Schuierer, 1963 "1962", Herpetologica, 18: 262-267. Stebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 210, provided a brief account, figure, and map. Fellers, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 406–408, provided a detailed account, map, and conservation status. See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status (as Bufo cristatus) in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 183. Goebel, Ranker, Corn, and Olmstead, 2009, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 50: 209–225, discussed mtDNA phylogeography of the Anaxyrus boreas group and suggested that Anaxyrus exsul is the sister taxon of a group composed of some populations of Anaxyrus canorus, Anaxyrus nelsoni, and some populations of Anaxyrus boreas halophilus. Wang, 2009, Mol. Ecol., 18: 3847–3856, reported on landscape genetics. Dodd, 2013, Frogs U.S. and Canada, 1: 92–96, provided an account that summarized relevant literature. Elliot, Gerhardt, and Davidson, 2009, Frogs and Toads of N. Am.: 178–179, provided an account, photos, and advertisement call. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 175–177, provided an account of larval morphology and biology.   

External links:

Please note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. We are not responsible for their content.