Anaxyrus hemiophrys (Cope, 1886)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Anaxyrus > Species: Anaxyrus hemiophrys

Bufo hemiophrys Cope, 1886, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 23: 515. Syntypes: USNM 11927 (6 specimens), by original designation; USNM 11927 (6 specimens) and MCZ 3728. Cope mentioned only 6 specimens in his type series but Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 34, noted 7, of which 1 had been exchanged to the MCZ. Type locality: "northern boundary of Montana", USA; corrected to "Pembina, Pembina County, North Dakota", USA, by Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 34; Stejneger and Barbour, 1917, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept.: 28, reported "Pembina and Turtle Mts., North Dakota", USA, and Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 232, gave "Pembina and Turtle Mts., N. Dakota, U.S.A." for the MCZ syntypes; see comment above. Restricted to "Turtle Mountains", North Dakota, USA by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 67. This restriction regarded as invalid by Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 304, for reason of not being based on disclosed evidence. 

Bufo woodhousei hemiophrysSchmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 67.

Bufo hemiophrysBlair, 1957, Texas J. Sci., 9: 99.

Bufo hemiophrys hemiophrysPorter, 1968, Evolution, 22: 593, by implication.

Bufo americanus hemiophrysCook, 1983, Publ. Nat. Sci. Natl. Mus. Canada, 3: 1. 

Anaxyrus hemiophrysFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 363.

Bufo (Anaxyrus) hemiophrys — Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 304. See comment under Bufonidae regarding how this arrangement is part of a a system that requires widespread paraphyly. 

English Names

Canadian Toad (Wright and Wright, 1933, Handb. Frogs Toads U.S. Canada: x; Stebbins, 1951, Amph. W. North Am.: 263; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 309; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 42; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 7; Stebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 216; Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2008, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 37: 3; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 6; Frost, McDiarmid, Mendelson, and Green, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 13; Frost, Lemmon, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 8).

Dakota Toad (Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 67; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 176; Stebbins, 1966, Field Guide W. North Am. Rept. Amph.: 64; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 10; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 11).


Eastern South Dakota and western Minnesota (USA) to western Ontario, eastern Alberta, and extreme southern Northwest Territories (Canada).

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Canada, United States of America, United States of America - Minnesota, United States of America - Montana, United States of America - North Dakota, United States of America - South Dakota


In the Bufo americanus group according to Blair, 1957, Texas J. Sci., 9: 108, and Blair, 1959, Texas J. Sci., 11: 427. See Bufo baxteri. Green, 1983, Herpetologica, 39: 28–40, studied a hybrid zone with Bufo americanus in Manitoba, Canada. Cocroft and Ryan, 1995, Animal Behav., 49: 283–303, discussed advertisement call in an evolutionary context. Green and Pustowka, 1997, Herpetologica, 53: 218–228, discussed this hybrid zone and taxonomic implications. See comment under Anayxrus fowleri. Stebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 216–217, provided a brief account, figure, and map. Ewert and Lannoo, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 412–415, provided a detailed account, map, and conservation status. Fontenot, Makowsky, and Chippindale, 2011, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 59: 66–80, discussed hybridization with eastern members of the Anaxyrus americanus group. Dodd, 2013, Frogs U.S. and Canada, 1: 113–120, provided an account that summarized relevant literature. Elliot, Gerhardt, and Davidson, 2009, Frogs and Toads of N. Am.: 156–157, provided an account, photos, and advertisement call. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 181, provided an account of larval morphology and biology.    

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