Anaxyrus mexicanus (Brocchi, 1879)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Anaxyrus > Species: Anaxyrus mexicanus

Bufo mexicanus Brocchi, 1879, Bull. Soc. Philomath., Paris, Ser. 7, 3: 23. Types: MNHNP, lost according to Kellogg, 1932, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 160: 46. Type locality: "Mexique". Restricted to "Xochimilco", Distrito Federal, Mexico, by Smith and Taylor, 1950, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 33: 330 (this being outside of the known range—DRF).

Bufo mexicanusBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 293; Gergus, 1998, Herpetologica, 54: 317–325.

Bufo lentiginosus mexicanusGarman, 1884, Bull. Essex Inst., 16: 43, by implication.

Bufo microscaphus mexicanusWebb, 1972, Herpetologica, 28: 1.

Anaxyrus mexicanusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 363.

Bufo (Anaxyrus) mexicanus — Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 290, by implicaiton. See comment under Bufonidae regarding how this arrangement is part of a a system that requires widespread paraphyly. 

English Names

Mexican Spadefoot Toad (Liner, 1994, Herpetol. Circ., 23: 17).

Mexican Madre Toad (Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 8).

Southwestern Toad (Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 611).


Pine-oak and pine montane forests of central and eastern Sonora and western Chihuahua, south to southwestern Durango and adjacent Sinaloa, Mexico.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Mexico

Endemic: Mexico


In the Bufo americanus group of XXX. Reviewed (as Bufo microscaphus mexicanus) by Price and Sullivan, 1988, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 415: 1–3. See Webb, 1972, Herpetologica, 28: 1–6, for discussion of taxonomic hisory (confusion with Anayxrus compactilis and Anayxrus speciosus) and affinities with Anayxrus microscaphus (all as Bufo). See comments under Anaxyrus microscaphus and Anaxyrus californicus. See statement of geographic range, habitat, and conservation status (as Bufo mexicanus) in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 611. Lemos-Espinal, 2007, Anf. Rept. Chihuahua Mexico: 38–39, provided an account (as Bufo mexicanus) for Chihuahua, Mexico. Oliver-López, Woolrich-Piña, and Lemos-Espinal, 2009, Fam. Bufonidae Mex.: 40–42, provided an account but inexplicably mapped populations of Anaxyrus microscaphus in Arizona and New Mexico (USA) as being of this species. Valdes-Lares, Martín-Muñoz de Cote, and Muñiz-Martínez, 2013, Herpetol. Rev., 44: 646, provided new records for Durango, Mexico. Rorabaugh and Lemos-Espinal, 2016, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Sonora: 124–125, provided a detailed account of natural history, morphology, and conservation status in Sonora, Mexico. Lemos-Espinal, Smith, and Valdes-Lares, 2019, Amph. Rept. Durango: 49–50, provided a brief account for Durango, Mexico.     

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