Anaxyrus quercicus (Holbrook, 1840)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Anaxyrus > Species: Anaxyrus quercicus

Bufo quercicus Holbrook, 1840, N. Am. Herpetol., 4: 109. Type(s): Frog illustrated in pl. 22; not known to still exist. Type localities: "near Charleston in South Carolina, and at Smithville in North Carolina"; restricted to "Charleston, South Carolina", USA, by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 65.

Chilophryne dialopha Cope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 341. Types: "Museum Academy, Phila." = ANSP, likely lost, not listed by Malnate, 1971, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 123: 345-375. Type locality: "Sandwich Islands" (= Hawaiian Islands), in error according to Cope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 291-92; designated as "Charleston, South Carolina", USA, by Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 65. Synonymy by Cope, 1886, Proc. Am. Philos. Soc., 23: 516; Cope, 1889, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 34: 291; Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 123.

Incilius dialophusCope, 1863, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 15: 50.

Bufo dialophusBoulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 319.

Anaxyrus quercicusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 363.

Bufo (Anaxyrus) quercicus — Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 307. See comment under Bufonidae regarding how this arrangement is part of a a system that requires substantial paraphyly. 

English Names

Oak Toad (Yarrow, 1876, List Skeletons and Crania: 39; Yarrow, 1882, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 24: 23; Dickerson, 1906, The Frog Book: 104: Wright and Wright, 1933, Handb. Frogs Toads U.S. Canada: x; Carr, 1940, Univ. Florida Biol. Sci. Ser., 3: 54; Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 65; Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 176; Conant, 1975, Field Guide Rept. Amph. E. Cent. N. Am., Ed. 2: 312; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 11; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 11; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 8; Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2008, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 37: 4; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 6; Frost, McDiarmid, Mendelson, and Green, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 13; Frost, Lemmon, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 9).

Dwarf Toad (Brimley, 1907, J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc., 23: 157; Viosca, 1949, Pop. Sci. Bull., Louisiana Acad. Sci., 1: 10).


Southeastern Louisiana to southeastern Virginia along the Gulf and Atlantic coastal plains, central, southern, and eastern Alabama, and all of peninsular Florida, USA.


Reviewed by Ashton and Franz, 1979, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 222: 1-2. In the Bufo quercicus group of Blair, 1972, Evol. Genus Bufo: 353. Punzo, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 432–433, and Dodd, 2013, Frogs U.S. and Canada, 1: 144–149, provideds account that summarized relevant literature. Elliot, Gerhardt, and Davidson, 2009, Frogs and Toads of N. Am.: 142–143, provided an account, photos, and advertisement call. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 183, provided an account of larval morphology and biology. See account of biology and life history in southern Florida by Meshaka and Lane, 2015, Herpetol. Conserv. Biol., 10 (Monogr. 5): 20–26. Guyer and Bailey, 2023, Frogs and Toads of Alabama: 60–63, provided a detailed account (including larval morphology) for Alabama, USA.   

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