Anaxyrus retiformis (Sanders and Smith, 1951)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Anaxyrus > Species: Anaxyrus retiformis

Bufo debilis retiformis Sanders and Smith, 1951, Field and Laboratory, 19: 153. Holotype: UIMNH 5847, by original designation. Type locality: "14.4 miles S. Ajo, Pima County, Arizona", USA.

Bufo retiformisBogert, 1962, Am. Mus. Novit., 2100: 8.

Anaxyrus retiformisFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 363.

Bufo (Anaxyrus) retiformis — Fouquette and Dubois, 2014, Checklist N.A. Amph. Rept.: 308. See comment under Bufonidae regarding how this arrangement is part of a a system that requires widespread paraphyly. 

English Names

Pima Green Toad (Schmidt, 1953, Check List N. Am. Amph. Rept., Ed. 6: 63).

Sonora Green Toad (Conant, Cagle, Goin, Lowe, Neill, Netting, Schmidt, Shaw, Stebbins, and Bogert, 1956, Copeia, 1956: 176).

Sonoran Green Toad (Stebbins, 1966, Field Guide W. North Am. Rept. Amph.: 65; Collins, Huheey, Knight, and Smith, 1978, Herpetol. Circ., 7: 11; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43; Liner, 1994, Herpetol. Circ., 23: 17; Collins, 1997, Herpetol. Circ., 25: 11; Crother, Boundy, Campbell, de Queiroz, Frost, Highton, Iverson, Meylan, Reeder, Seidel, Sites, Taggart, Tilley, and Wake, 2001 "2000", Herpetol. Circ., 29: 8; CITES; Stebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 217; Frost, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2008, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 37: 4; Liner and Casas-Andreu, 2008, Herpetol. Circ., 38: 8; Collins and Taggart, 2009, Standard Common Curr. Sci. Names N. Am. Amph. Turtles Rept. Crocodil., ed. 6: 6; Frost, McDiarmid, Mendelson, and Green, 2012, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 39: 13; Frost, Lemmon, McDiarmid, and Mendelson, 2017, in Crother (ed.), Herpetol. Circ., 43: 9).


Central-western Sonora (Mexico), from just north of Guaymas north to southwest-central Arizona (USA).

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Mexico, United States of America, United States of America - Arizona


Reviewed by Hulse, 1978, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 207: 1-2. In the Bufo debilis group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 53. See comment under Anaxyrus punctatus. Stebbins, 2003, Field Guide W. Rept. Amph., Ed. 3: 217-218, provided a brief account, figure, and map. Oliver-López, Woolrich-Piña, and Lemos-Espinal, 2009, Fam. Bufonidae Mex.: 46–48, provided an account, although the range, as mapped, is substantially incorrect and does not agree with their stated range. Blomquist, 2005, in Lannoo (ed.), Amph. Declines: 433–435, and  Dodd, 2013, Frogs U.S. and Canada, 1: 149–152, provided accounts that summarized relevant literature. Elliot, Gerhardt, and Davidson, 2009, Frogs and Toads of N. Am.: 166–167, provided an account, photos, and advertisement call. Altig and McDiarmid, 2015, Handb. Larval Amph. US and Canada: 179, provided an account of larval morphology and biology.    

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