Bufo eichwaldi Litvinchuk, Borkin, Skorinov, and Rosanov, 2008

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Bufo > Species: Bufo eichwaldi

Bufo eichwaldi Litvinchuk, Borkin, Skorinov, and Rosanov, 2008, Russ. J. Herpetol., 15: 35. Holotype: ZISP 7185.1, by original designation. Type locality: "near an office of the Girkansky Nature Reserve in Azfilial (the vicinity of Avrora village), 38°39′ N 48°48′ E, Lenkoran District, Azerbaijan".

Bufo (Bufo) eichwaldiRastegar-Pouyani, Kami, Rajabizadeh, Shafiei, and Anderson, 2008, Iranian J. Anim. Biosyst., 4: 44.

Bufo (Bufo) eichwaldiDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

English Names

Eichwald’s Toad (original publication).


Southeastern Azerbaijan in the Talysh Mountains and extending into the Talysh and Elburz mountains of northern Iran (reported for Golestan, Mazandaran, and Gilan provinces and probably to be found in Ardabil Province).

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Azerbaijan, Iran


Regarded as a member of the Iranian fauna by Rastegar-Pouyani, Kami, Rajabizadeh, Shafiei, and Anderson, 2008, Iranian J. Anim. Biosyst., 4: 44. Records (as Bufo bufo) provided for Mazandaran Province by Tuck, 1975, Herpetol. Rev., 6: 115. Recuero, Canestrelli, Vörös, Szabó, Poyarkov, Arntzen, Crnobrnja-Isailovic, Kidov, Cogǎlniceanu, Caputo, Nascetti, and Martínez-Solano, 2012, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 62: 71-86, on the basis of mt and nuDNA concludd that Bufo eichwaldi is the sister taxon of Bufo bufo + (Bufo spinosus + Bufo verrucosissimus). This relationship was confirmed by Litvinchuk, Mazepa, Auer, and Kami, 2012, Herpetol. J., 22: 439-440, provided a range map and suggested a relationship of Bufo gargarizans + (Bufo eichwaldi + (Bufo bufo + Bufo verrucosissimus) [although regarding verrucosissimus as a subspecies]. Safaei-Mahroo, Ghaffari, Fahimi, Broomand, Yazdanian, Najafi-Majd, Hosseinian Yousefkani, Rezazadeh, Hosseinzadeh, Nasrabadi, Mashayekhi, Motesharei, Naderi, and Kazemi, 2015, Asian Herpetol. Res., 6: 257–290, reported on distribution and conservation status in Iran. Nöllert, Grosse, Buschendorf, and Geiger, 2016, Mertensiella, 24: 7–32, summarized and discussed the taxonomic history of this species and its recognition within the Bufo bufo group and provided a range map. See Dufresnes, 2019, Amph. Eur., N. Afr., & Middle East: 75, for brief summary of identifying morphology and biology, a range map, as well as a photograph. Kidov, Matushkina, and Litvinchuk, 2020, Russ. J. Herpetol., 27: 11–18, modeled the range and discussed its conservation status. Kuzmin, 2013, Amph. Former Soviet Union, Ed. 2: 144–145 , provided an account for Azerbaijan. Key to the species, synonymy, distribution (including map), and access to literature provided by Safaei-Mahroo and Ghaffari, 2020, Compl. Guide Amph. Iran: 1–331. Safaei-Mahroo, Ghaffari, and Niamir, 2023, Zootaxa, 5279: 1–112, provided for Iran an identification key including this species, photographs, habitat and conservation threats, a review of the literature, as well as dot and modeled distribution maps. 

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