Bufo formosus Boulenger, 1883

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Bufo > Species: Bufo formosus

Bufo formosus Boulenger, 1883, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1883: 140. Syntypes: BMNH (2 specimens), by original designation, these being BMNH 1882.7.14.27-28 (reregistered 1947.2.21.83-84) according to museum records. Type locality: "Yokohama", Japan. Synonymy by Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 60, and Slevin, 1937, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 23: 177. Junior secondary homonym of Bufo formosus Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 6: 646 (= Rhinella formosus [Tschudi, 1838]).

Bufo smithi Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 64. Holotype: USNM 31951, by original designation. Type locality: "Kochi, Province of Toza, Shikoku Island", Japan. Synonymy with Bufo formosus japonicus by Okada, 1931, Tailless Batr. Japan. Empire: 39; (with Bufo vulgaris) by Slevin, 1937, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 23: 177.

Bufo vulgaris yakushimensis Okada, 1928, Annot. Zool. Japon., 11: 269. Holotype: TIU 1983, lost by implication of Maeda and Matsui, 1990, Frogs Toads Japan, Ed. 2: 31. Type locality: "Yakushima in Kagoshima Prefecture", Japan. Synonymy by Matsui, 1984, Contrib. Biol. Lab. Kyoto Univ., 26: 404.

Bufo japonicus formosus — Matsui, 1984, Contrib. Biol. Lab. Kyoto Univ., 26: 404. Distinctiveness from Bufo japonicus japonicus doubted by Kawamura, Nishioka, Sumida, and Ryuzaki, 1990, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 10: 1-51.

Bufo (Bufo) japonicus formosus — Dubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

Bufo formosus — Dufresnes and Litvinchuk, 2022, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 195: 700. 

English Names

Eastern Japanese Common Toad (Bufo japonicus formosusMaeda and Matsui, 1990, Frogs Toads Japan, Ed. 2: 19; Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 51).


Extreme southern Hokkaido (introduced), eastern Honshu, Japan 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Japan

Endemic: Japan

Introduced: Japan


Prior to 2022, Bufo formosus was considered by most authors to be a synonym or  subspecies of Bufo japonicus (now Bufo praetextatus). See comment under Bufo praetexatus for literature addressing this species as part that of that one. Fukutani, Matsui, and Nishikawa, 2023, PeerJ, 11(e16302): 1–27, reported on hybrid zones between this lineage and Bufo praetextatus (as Bufo japonicus), noting a narrow hybrid zone in one area and broad zones in two others. 

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