Bufo formosus Boulenger, 1883

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Bufo > Species: Bufo formosus

Bufo formosus Boulenger, 1883, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1883: 140. Syntypes: BMNH (2 specimens), by original designation, these being BMNH 1882.7.14.27-28 (reregistered 1947.2.21.83-84) according to museum records. Type locality: "Yokohama", Japan. Synonymy by Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 60, and Slevin, 1937, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 23: 177. Junior secondary homonym of Bufo formosus Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 8: 646 (= Rhinella formosus [Tschudi, 1838]).

Bufo smithi Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 64. Holotype: USNM 31951, by original designation. Type locality: "Kochi, Province of Toza, Shikoku Island", Japan. Synonymy with Bufo formosus japonicus by Okada, 1931, Tailless Batr. Japan. Empire: 39; (with Bufo vulgaris) by Slevin, 1937, Proc. California Acad. Sci., Ser. 4, 23: 177.

Bufo vulgaris yakushimensis Okada, 1928, Annot. Zool. Japon., 11: 269. Holotype: TIU 1983, lost by implication of Maeda and Matsui, 1990, Frogs Toads Japan, Ed. 2: 31. Type locality: "Yakushima in Kagoshima Prefecture", Japan. Synonymy by Matsui, 1984, Contrib. Biol. Lab. Kyoto Univ., 26: 404.

Bufo japonicus formosus — Matsui, 1984, Contrib. Biol. Lab. Kyoto Univ., 26: 404. Distinctiveness from Bufo japonicus japonicus doubted by Kawamura, Nishioka, Sumida, and Ryuzaki, 1990, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 10: 1-51.

Bufo (Bufo) japonicus formosus — Dubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

Bufo formosus — Dufresnes and Litvinchuk, 2022, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 195: 700. 

English Names

Eastern Japanese Common Toad (Bufo japonicus formosusMaeda and Matsui, 1990, Frogs Toads Japan, Ed. 2: 19; Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 51).


Extreme southern Hokkaido (introduced), eastern Honshu, Japan 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Japan

Endemic: Japan

Introduced: Japan


Prior to 2022, Bufo formosus was considered by most authors to be a synonym or  subspecies of Bufo japonicus (now Bufo praetextatus). See comment under Bufo praetexatus for literature addressing this species as part that of that one. 

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