Bufo praetextatus Boie, 1826

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Bufo > Species: Bufo praetextatus

Bufo praetextatus Boie, 1826, Isis von Oken, 18: 215. Types: Not stated and presumed lost (although the other types described in this paper are in the ZMA). Type locality: "Vitikairu, et Fikikojeru et Nakfudo Jap.". Considered an unidentifiable nomen dubium by Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 59, although he also considered it a possible senior synonym of Bufo japonicus

Bufo vulgaris japonicus Temminck and Schlegel, 1838, Fauna Japonica, 3: 106. Syntypes: Not stated, although including animals figured in pl. 2, figs. 5 and 6 of the original publication. Syntypes include RMNH 2109, 2115–17, 2119, with RMNH 2119A designated lectotype according to and by Matsui, 1984, Contrib. Biol. Lab. Kyoto Univ., 26: 407. Type locality: "Japon". Synonymy by Okada, 1966, Fauna Japon., Anura: 17, and Dufresnes and Litvinchuk, 2022, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 195: 700.

Bufo vulgaris var. praetextatus — Martens, 1876, Preuss. Exped. Ost-Asien, Zool.: 384. Considered incorrectly by Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 60, to be a new name, a junior homonym of Bufo praetextatus Boie, 1826. Martens noted the author of the name as Boie. 

Bufo japonicusCamerano, 1879, Atti Accad. Sci. Torino, Cl. Sci. Fis. Mat. Nat., 14: 884.

Bufo praetextatus — Camerano, 1901 "1900", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 50: 113.

Bufo bufo japonicus — Stejneger, 1907, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 58: 69; Gee and Boring, 1929, Peking Nat. Hist. Bull., 4: 22; Pope, 1931, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 61: 457.

Bufo vulgaris hokkaidoensis Okada, 1928, Annot. Zool. Japon., 11: 269. Holotype: TIU 1506, lost by implication of Maeda and Matsui, 1990, Frogs Toads Japan, Ed. 2: 31. Type locality: "Hokkaido", Japan. Synonymy by Matsui, 1984, Contrib. Biol. Lab. Kyoto Univ., 26: 404.

Bufo vulgaris formosusOkada, 1931, Tailless Batr. Japan. Empire: 32.

Bufo vulgaris montanus Okada, 1937, Saito Ho-on Kwai Mus. Res. Bull., 12: 189. Holotype: Saito Ho-on Kai Museum Reg. no. 5553. Type locality: "Chôkai-zan, Akumi-gun, Yamagata-Ken", Tohoku District, Japan. Primary homonym of Bufo montanus Werner, 1897. Synonymy by Matsui, 1984, Contrib. Biol. Lab. Kyoto Univ., 26: 404.

Bufo bufo japonicusNakamura and Ueno, 1963, Japan. Rept. Amph. Color: 27.

Bufo bufo hokkaidoensisOkada, 1966, Fauna Japon., Anura: 15.

Bufo bufo montanusOkada, 1966, Fauna Japon., Anura: 15.

Bufo bufo yakushimensisOkada, 1966, Fauna Japon., Anura: 21.

Bufo japonicusKawamura, Nishioka, and Ueda, 1980, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 4: 1–125.

Bufo bufo formosusMatsui, 1980, Annot. Zool. Japon., 53: 57.

Bufo japonicus hokkaidoensisKawamura, Nishioka, and Ueda, 1980, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 4: 1–125. Distinctiveness from Bufo japonicus japonicus doubted by Kawamura, Nishioka, Sumida, and Ryuzaki, 1990, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 10: 1-51.

Bufo japonicus montanusKawamura, Nishioka, and Ueda, 1980, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 4: 1-125; Kawamura, Nishioka, Sumida, and Ryuzaki, 1990, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 10: 1-51.

Bufo japonicus yakushimensisKawamura, Nishioka, and Ueda, 1980, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 4: 1-125; Kawamura, Nishioka, Sumida, and Ryuzaki, 1990, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 10: 1-51.

Bufo japonicus japonicusMatsui, 1984, Contrib. Biol. Lab. Kyoto Univ., 26: 404.

Bufo (Bufo) japonicusDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

Bufo (Bufo) japonicus japonicusDubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 24.

English Names

Japanese Toad (Cochran, 1961, Living Amph. World: 96; Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 39; Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 42).

Western Japanese Common Toad (Bufo japonicus japonicus: Maeda and Matsui, 1990, Frogs Toads Japan, Ed. 2: 19; Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 48).

Distribution

Western Honshu, Shikoku, and Kyushu, as well as the Tanegashima Group of islands, Japan

Comment

See comment under Bufo formosus. In the Bufo bufo group; considered a subspecies of Bufo bufo, in most pre-1980 literature but considered a distinct species by Kawamura, Nishioka, and Ueda, 1980, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 4: 1-125. See also Matsui, 1980, Annot. Zool. Japon., 53: 56-68, and Matsui, 1976, Japan. J. Herpetol., 6: 80-92. Matsui, 1984, Contrib. Biol. Lab. Kyoto Univ., 26: 210-428, revised the species, reported on morphometrics and geographic variation. See also Nishioka, Sumida, Ueda, and Wu, 1990, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 10: 53-91, and Kawamura, Nishioka, Sumida, and Ryuzaki, 1990, Sci. Rep. Lab. Amph. Biol. Hiroshima Univ., 10: 1-51, for allozymic variation. Highton, 2000, in Bruce et al., Biol. Plethodontid Salamanders: 233, suggested that two species might be covered under this one name, these having parapatric contact at Neo-mura, Motoso-gun, Gifu Prefecture, Japan. See Maeda and Matsui, 1990, Frogs Toads Japan, Ed. 2: 18-23, for accounts. Goris and Maeda, 2004, Guide Amph. Rept. Japan: 48-52, provided accounts for Bufo japonicus japonicus and Bufo japonicus formosus. Yamazaki, Kouketsu, Fukuda, Araki, and Nambu, 2008, J. Herpetol., 42: 427-436, documented introgression of Bufo japonicus formosus with Bufo torrenticola. Comment by DRF: The taxonomy of this group is controversial in part by application of different species concepts. Those who apply the Biological Species concept tend to see nominal Bufo japonicus as composed of several allopatric subspecies, while those who apply the Phylogenetic Species concept tend to see multiple species. What does seem clear is that there are several units that are distinctive lineages and which may or may not be mechanistically reproductively isolated to various degrees. These are Bufo miyakonis from Miyako Island (see Bufo gargarizans account) in the Ryukyus, Bufo torrenticola (which introgresses with Bufo japonicus to an unknown degree), Bufo formosus (the "eastern form" of the Japanese toad), Bufo japonicus, the "western form" of the Japanese toad (with both the eastern and western clade containing subclades that warrant additional study as possibly coherent lineages), Bufo bankorensis from Taiwan, Bufo yakushimensis (from Yaku Island, Japan), and Bufo gargarizans from China. Recognition of Bufo torrenticola and Bufo yakushimensis as species distinct from Bufo japonicus (western mtDNA clade) appears to render the latter "paraphyletic" in the sense that its mtDNA form a paraphyletic series; whether this is incomplete lineage sorting or the result of introgression is not known. The status of Bufo japonicus montanus appears questionable on the basis of mtDNA that it should be considered separate from Bufo japonicus (eastern clade). Suzuki, Kawase, Hoshina, and Tokuda, 2020, Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 39: 47–54, employed mtDNA data to infer that the Hokkaido population of nominal Bufo japonicus formosus was derived from introductions from mid-eastern Honshu, Japan. Tanaka and Nishikawa, 2022, Curr. Herpetol., Kyoto, 41: 8–23, compared morphological larval development with that of Bufo torrenticolaSawada, Aihara, and Kamijo, 2022, J. Asia-Pacific Biodiversity, 15: 345–353, developed a predictive model for the developing range of this introduced species (as Bufo japonicus) on Sado Island, Japan.  Dufresnes and Litvinchuk, 2022, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 195: 700, discussed the justification for applying the name Bufo praetextatus over Bufo japonicus

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