Bufotes boulengeri (Lataste, 1879)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Bufotes > Species: Bufotes boulengeri

Bufo Hemprichi Fitzinger, 1826, Neue Class. Rept.: 65. Type(s): Not stated, presumably originally in NHMW or ZIUW. Type locality: "Ex Africa, Aegypto". Nomen nudum. Synonymy with Bufo viridis by Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 40. Placed in this synonymy on the basis of geography (DRF).

Bufo boulengeri  Lataste, 1879, Rev. Internatl. Sci., 2nd year, Paris, 4: 438. Holotype: Lataste collection; now presumably in the BMNH. Type locality: "sur les plateaux de Sersou, entre Tiaret et Frendah, dans la province d'Oran, et à une altitude de 1200 mètres", Algeria.

Bufo viridis var. maculata Camerano, 1884 "1883", Mem. Accad. Sci. Torino, Ser. 2, 35: 233. Types: MZUT. Type locality: "Modica-Sicilia". Presumably a junior synonym of Bufotes boulengeri  (DRF). Junior primary homonym of Bufo maculatus Hallowell, 1854. Unavailable name due to being coined as a infrasubspecific category according to Novarini and Bonato, 2010, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 5: 37-62.

Pseudepidalea boulengeriFrost, 2007, Amph. Spec. World, vers. 5.0, by implication of results of Frost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365, and Stöck, Moritz, Hickerson, Frynta, Dujsebayeva, Eremchenko, Macey, Papenfuss, and Wake, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 41: 663-689.

Bufo siculus Stöck, Sicilia, Belfiore, Buckley, Lo-Brutto, Lo-Valvo, and Arculeo, 2008, BMC Evol. Biol., 8(56): 11. Holotype: Museum of Terrasini, Palermo P215, by original designation. Type locality: "Monte Pellegrino reserve (38.170 N, 13.351 E), Palermo, Sicily, Italy". Nomen nudum having been issued electronically-only prior to 2011 (see comment by Dufresnes, Mazepa, Jablonski, Oliveira, Wenseleers, Shabanov, Auer, Ernst, Koch, Ramírez-Chaves, Mulder, Simonovo, Tiutenko, Kryvokhyzhar, Wennekes, Zinenko, Korshunov, Al-Johany, Peregontsev, Masroor, Betto-Colliard, Denoël, Borkin, Skorinov, Pasynkova, Mazanaeva, Rosanov, Dubey, and Litvinchuk, 2019, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 141: 22). 

Pseudepidalea sicula — Frost, 2008, Amph. Spec. World, vers. 5.2.

Bufo (Bufotes) siculus — Dubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 25. See comment under Bufotes record.

Bufo (Bufotes) boulengeri — Dubois and Bour, 2010, Zootaxa, 2447: 25.

Bufotes boulengeri — Frost, 2013, Amph. Spec. World, Vers. 5.6. Required change because of the non-monophyly of Bufo.

Bufotes siculus — Frost, 2013, Amph. Spec. World, Vers. 5.6. Required change because of non-monophyly of Bufo.

Bufotes boulengeri siculus — Nicolas, Mataame, Crochet, Géniez, Fahd, and Ohler, 2018, J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 56: 103. Treatment as a subspecies of Bufotes boulengeri. But see comment above in this synonymy under Bufo siculus. 

English Names

African Green Toad (Beukema, de Pous, Donaire-Barroso, Bogaerts, Garcia-Porta, Escoriza, Arribas, El Mouden, and Carranza, 2013, Zootaxa, 3661: 42). 

Sicilian Green Toad (Bufotes siculus [no longer recognized]: Dufresnes, 2019, Amph. Eur., N. Afr., & Middle East: 79).

Distribution

North Africa from northern Western Sahara and Morocco east through Algeria (in isolated populations), Tunisia, and Libya, to Egypt; Sicily as well as Favigana, Ustica, and Lampedusa islands, Italy. 

Comment

Recognized as a distinct species by Stöck, Moritz, Hickerson, Frynta, Dujsebayeva, Eremchenko, Macey, Papenfuss, and Wake, 2006, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 41: 663-689, and removed from the synonymy of Bufo viridis, where it had been placed by Boulenger, 1881 "1880", Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1880: 553; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 297. Stöck et al., 2006, also noted an unnamed species (now Bufotes boulengeri siculus) in Sicily, Italy. See also Kete, 1992, Turkish J. Zool., 16: 60-70, who seemingly applied the name Bufo arabicus (as a subspecies of Bufo viridis) to this population and who mapped the subspecies in Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East.See Salvador, 1996, Smithson. Herpetol. Inform. Serv., 109, for account (as Bufo viridis) of North African population. Frynta, Kratochvil, Moravec, Benda, Dandova, Kaftan, Klosova, Mikulova, Nova, and Schwarzova, 2000, Acta Soc. Zool. Bohem., 64: 20, implied that populations (as Bufo viridis) in the southern oases of Libya might require taxonomic recognition. Baha El Din, 2006, Guide Rept. Amph. Egypt: 35-36, provided an account for Egypt (as Bufo viridis). Géniez, Mateo, Geniez, and Pether, 2004, Amph. Rept. W. Sahara: 31-32, provided an account (as Bufo viridis) for Western Sahara. Ibrahim, 2008, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 3: 35-49, reported the species from southwestern Libya (as Bufo viridis). Donaire-Barroso, Beukema, de Pous, and del Canto-Gonzalez, 2011, Herpetol. Notes, 3: 71-74, discussed the range in the Rif Mountains of Morocco. Beukema, de Pous, Donaire-Barroso, Bogaerts, Garcia-Porta, Escoriza, Arribas, El Mouden, and Carranza, 2013, Zootaxa, 3661: 42-44, provided a brief account for Morocco. See comments on ecology and distribution in Marocco (as Bufo viridis) by Guillon, Le Liard, and Slimani, 2004, Bull. Soc. Herpetol.France, 2004: 37–48. Nicolas, Mataame, Crochet, Géniez, Fahd, and Ohler, 2018, J. Zool. Syst. Evol. Res., 56: 102–116, reported on molecular phylogeography as Bufotes boulengeri boulengeri. Speybroeck, Beukema, Bok, and Van Der Voort, 2016, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Brit. Eur.: 155–157, provided a brief account and range map for Europe. See detailed account for North Africa by Escoriza and Ben Hassine, 2019, Amph. N. Afr.: 159–168. Dufresnes, Mazepa, Jablonski, Oliveira, Wenseleers, Shabanov, Auer, Ernst, Koch, Ramírez-Chaves, Mulder, Simonovo, Tiutenko, Kryvokhyzhar, Wennekes, Zinenko, Korshunov, Al-Johany, Peregontsev, Masroor, Betto-Colliard, Denoël, Borkin, Skorinov, Pasynkova, Mazanaeva, Rosanov, Dubey, and Litvinchuk, 2019, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 141: 1–25, summarized the phylogenetics and biogeography of this diploid species, recognizing two subspecies, Bufotes boulengeri siculus from Sicily and nearby islands and Bufotes boulengeri boulengeri from North Africa. Channing and Rödel, 2019, Field Guide Frogs & Other Amph. Afr.: 56–57, provided a brief account, photograph, and range map for the African component of the range. See Dufresnes, 2019, Amph. Eur., N. Afr., & Middle East: 78 (as Bufotes siculus) and p. 79 (as Bufotes boulengeri), for brief summary of identifying morphology and biology, a range map, as well as a photograph.

   

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