Ingerophrynus biporcatus (Gravenhorst, 1829)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Ingerophrynus > Species: Ingerophrynus biporcatus

Bufo biporcatus Gravenhorst, 1829, Delic. Mus. Zool. Vratislav., 1: 53. Types: Not designated, though presumably originally in the Breslau Museum. Type locality: "Java", Indonesia.

Docidophryne biporcataFitzinger, 1861 "1860", Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 42: 415.

Chilophryne biporcataCope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 358.

Incilius biporcatusCope, 1863, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 15: 50.

Bufo cavator Barbour, 1911, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 24: 21. Holotype: MCZ 2670, by original designation. Type locality: "Ampenan, Lombok Island", Indonesia. Synonymy by Dunn, 1928, Am. Mus. Novit., 315: 2; Church, 1960, Herpetologica, 16: 23-28.

Bufo biporcatus cavatorDunn, 1928, Am. Mus. Novit., 315: 2.

Bufo biporcatus biporcatusDunn, 1928, Am. Mus. Novit., 315: 2. Inger, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 33: 228.

Ingerophrynus biporcatusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365.

English Names

Indonesian Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 40).

Crested Toad (Iskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 46-47).

Sunda Ridge-headed Toad (McKay, 2006, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Bali: 31).


Sumatra, Java, Bali, Lombok, Sumbawa, Lombok, and Rote; introduced in Sulawesi; records from Thailand south to the range of this species are assignable to other named or unnamed related species.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Indonesia

Endemic: Indonesia

Introduced: Indonesia


Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 58-63, discussed subspecies now considered distinct species; see Ingerophrynus divergens and Ingerophrynus philippinicus. In the former Bufo biporcatus group of Inger, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 107. See identification table by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 26, to compare this species with others in the Sunda Shelf region. McKay, 2006, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Bali: 31-32, provided a brief account and photograph. Wanger, Motzke, Saleh, and Iskandar, 2011, Salamandra, 47: 17-29, reported the species from central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Reilly, Stubbs, Arida, Arifin, Bloch, Hamidy, Harmon, Hykin, Karin, Ramadhan, Iskandar, and McGuire, 2020, Herpetol. Rev., 51: 786, provided a record for Rote I. and Sumbawa I., Indonesia, and discussed the range. Badriah, Wahyuni, Usman, Mahrawi, Ratnasari, and Rifqiawati, 2022, Berkala Ilmiah Biologi, 13 (3): 1–8, reported specimens from Ujong Kulon National Park, extreme western Java, Indonesia. 

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