Ingerophrynus divergens (Peters, 1871)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Ingerophrynus > Species: Ingerophrynus divergens

English Names

Malayan Dwarf Toad (Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 90).

Crested Toad (Das, Jankowski, Makmor, and Haas, 2007, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 104: 147; Das, 2007, Amph. Rept. Brunei: 27).


Lower elevations of Bunguran I. (Natuna Is.), Sumatra, and Borneo (Kalimantan and Sarawak); reported in peninsular Thailand (Yala and Narathiwat provinces; see comment).

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Malaysia, East (Sarawak and/or Sabah), Thailand


Removed from the synonymy of Ingerophrynus biporcatus by Inger and Tan, 1996, Raffles Bull. Zool., 44: 555, where it had been placed by Inger, 1954, Fieldiana, Zool., 33: 228; in the Bufo biporcatus group by implication. See account by Berry, 1975, Amph. Fauna Peninsular Malaysia: 47 (as Bufo biporcatus). See also identification table by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 26, to compare this species with others in the Sunda Shelf region. Malkmus, Manthey, Vogel, Hoffmann, and Kosuch, 2002, Amph. Rept. Mount Kinabalu: 76–77, provided an account. Chan-ard and Thong-aree, 2003, BRT Research Report, 2003: 245–258, reported the species from Hala-Bala Wildlife Sanctuary, Yala and Narathiwat province, Thailand. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 90–91, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Das, Jankowski, Makmor, and Haas, 2007, Mitt. Hamburg. Zool. Mus. Inst., 104: 147, provided a brief description. Das, 2007, Amph. Rept. Brunei: 27, provided a photograph and a brief account (as Bufo divergens). Thong-aree, Chan-ard, Cota, and Makchai, 2011, Thailand Nat. Hist. Mus. J., 5: 99–106, reported the species from Bala Forest, Narathiwat, extreme southern Thailand. Chan-ard, Cota, and Makchai, 2011, Amph. E. Region Thailand: 128, detailed the range in Thailand. Amram, Zainudin, and Wahid, 2018, Sains Malaysiana, 47: 1–7, reported on the mating call. Chan and Grismer, 2019, BMC Evol. Biol., 19(95): 3, suggested that the sequence divergence between this species and Ingerophrynus gollum is so low (below 3%) that they may be conspecific. Haas, Kueh, Joseph, bin Asri, Das, Hagmann, Schwander, and Hertwig, 2018, Evol. Syst., 2: 89–114, provided a brief account of morphology for the Sabah population. Poyarkov, Nguyen, Popov, Geissler, Pawangkhanant, Neang, Suwannapoom, and Orlov, 2021, Russ. J. Herpetol., 28 (3A): 20, suggested that the Thailand records require confirmation. Haas, Das, Hertwig, Bublies, and Schulz-Schaeffer, 2022, Guide to the Tadpoles of Borneo: 118–120, summarized the knowledge of habitat, reproduction, larval morphology and coloration. Herlambang, Riyanto, Munir, Hamidy, Kimura, Eto, and Mumpuni, 2022, Treubia, 49: 78,  reported the species from Bungaran I., Natuna Is., Indonesia. 

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