Ingerophrynus macrotis (Boulenger, 1887)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Ingerophrynus > Species: Ingerophrynus macrotis

Bufo macrotis Boulenger, 1887, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, Ser. 2, 5: 422. Syntypes: BMNH 1947.2.21.15–16 (formerly–53; according to Inger, 1985, in Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 52), NHMW 16555 (according to Häupl and Tiedemann, 1978, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 2: 14, and Häupl, Tiedemann, and Grillitsch, 1994, Kat. Wiss. Samml. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, 9: 18), MZUT An235 (according to Gavetti and Andreone, 1993, Cat. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat., Torino, 10: 63), and MSNG (10 specimens); MSNG 29616 designated lectotype by Capocaccia, 1957, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, Ser. 3, 69: 212. Type locality: "Bhamò; Teinzò, and Me-tan-jà in the Kakhien Hills", Myanmar; restricted to Teinzò, Myanmar, by lectotype designation.

Ingerophrynus macrotisFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365.

English Names

Big-eared Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 42).

Flat-headed Toad (Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 90).

Big-eyed Toad (Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 12).

Big-eyed Dwarf Toad (Dinesh, Radhakrishnan, Deepak, and Kulkarni, 2023, Fauna India Checklist, vers. 5.0 : 3). 


Arunachal Pradesh (northeastern India) and Myanmar (Kachin, Sagaing; also a single record each from Yangon and Rakhine) throughout much of Thailand (in isolated localities) through Laos to the central highlands of Vietnam (Lao Cai, Bac Giang, Ha Tinh, Kon Tum, Gia Lai, Binh Dinh, and Dak Lak provinces) and northern and southwestern Cambodia to northern Malaya (see comment); likely into adjacent Yunnan, China.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Cambodia, India, Laos, Malaysia, Malaysia, West (Peninsular), Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam

Likely/Controversially Present: China, People's Republic of


See Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 169–170, Taylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 324–326, and Berry, 1975, Amph. Fauna Peninsular Malaysia: 48, for accounts. See Inger, Orlov, and Darevsky, 1999, Fieldiana, Zool., N.S., 92: 10–11, for Vietnam record. Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 170, suggested that this species is closely related to Bufo parvus in the Bufo biporcatus group. See brief account and photo by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 32–33. Reported for southwestern Cambodia by Ohler, Swan, and Daltry, 2002, Raffles Bull. Zool., 50: 465–481. IUCN, Conservation International, and NatureServe, 2004, Global Amph. Assessment, reported the species in Assam and Arunchal Pradesh, India, but Dutta, 1997, Amph. India Sri Lanka: 173, provided a range, systematic comments including doubting the identification of Indian specimens, and partial taxonomic bibliography. Borah and Bordoloi, 2001, Zoos' Print J., 16: 574, and Sarkar and Ray, 2006, In Alfred (ed.), Fauna of Arunachal Pradesh, Part 1: 290, reported the species from Arunachal Pradesh, India. Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 90–91, provided a very brief account, map for Thailand, and photograph. Nguyen, Ho, and Nguyen, 2005, Checklist Amph. Rept. Vietnam: 17, provided specific localities for Vietnam. Stuart, 2005, Herpetol. Rev., 36: 475, provided records for Laos. Bain, Nguyen, and Doan, 2007, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 107, provided a record from Thua Thien-Hue Province, Vietnam, and briefly discussed the distribution. Das and Dutta, 2007, Hamadryad, 31: 154–181, noted one abbreviated larval description in the literature. Neang and Holden, 2008, Field Guide Amph. Cambodia: 52, provided a photograph, brief account of identification, ecology, and range in Cambodia. Mathew and Sen, 2010, Pict. Guide Amph. NE India: 12–13, provided a brief characterization and photograph for Arunachal Pradesh, northeastern India. Chan-ard, Cota, and Makchai, 2011, Amph. E. Region Thailand: 30–31, provided a brief account and photograph for eastern Thailand, and (p. 128), detailed the range in Thailand. Grismer, Grismer, Wood, Ngo, Neang, and Chan, 2011, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 57: 69, briefly noted the presence of this species in the Cardomon Region of southwestern Cambodia. Luu, Nguyen, Pham, Dang, Vu, Miskovic, Bonkowski, and Ziegler, 2013, Biodiversity J., 4: 285–300, reported the species in Phong Nha—Ke Bang National Park, Quang Binh Province, Vietnam. Niyomwan, Srisom, and Pawangkhanant, 2019, Field Guide Amph. Thailand: 184–185, provided a brief account (photographs, habitat, and range) for Thailand (in Thai). See comments by Geissler, Hartmann, Ihlow, Neang, Seng, Wagner, and Böhme, 2019, Cambodian J. Nat. Hist., 2019: 40–63, on specimens collected in Phnom Kulen National Park, northern Cambodia. Makchai, Chuaynkern, Safoowong, Chuachat, and Cota, 2020, Amph. N. Thailand: 48–49, provided a brief account for northern Thailand, range map, and photographs. Poyarkov, Nguyen, Popov, Geissler, Pawangkhanant, Neang, Suwannapoom, and Orlov, 2021, Russ. J. Herpetol., 28 (3A): 20, stated that the presence of this species in peninsular Malaysia remains unconfirmed although not specifically suggesting that Berry (1975) had misidentified his material. Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 15, discussed identification, habitat, and range in Myanmar. Duong and Ngo, 2022, Herpetol. Notes, 15: 751–762, discussed range in Vietnam in provided records for Dinh Binh Province.  

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