Ingerophrynus parvus (Boulenger, 1887)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Ingerophrynus > Species: Ingerophrynus parvus

Bufo parvus Boulenger, 1887, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 5, 19: 346. Syntypes: BMNH 1947.2.21.72–82 (formerly 1886.12.28.42–51), MCZ 2208 (3 specimens, exchanged from BMNH according to Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 232), and MNHNP 1887.0123, according to Inger, 1985, in Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 56; MSNG 29413 designated lectotype by Capocaccia, 1957, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, Ser. 3, 69: 212 (invalidly according to Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 190). Type locality: "within a radius of fifty miles from the town of Malacca", Malaysia (Malaya). Invalid lectotype from "Malewoon (Tenasserim)", Myanmar according to Capocaccia, 1957, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Genova, Ser. 3, 69: 212. Lectotype designation rejected by Dubois and Ohler, 1999, J. South Asian Nat. Hist., 4: 170, inasmuch as the locality data associated with it precludes its inclusion in the original syntypic series.

Bufo parvas — Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 73. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Ingerophrynus parvusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365.

English Names

Lesser Malacca Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43).

Lesser Toad (Iskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 48).

Straight-ridge Toad (Kiew, 1987, Malayan Nat. J., 41: 417).

Red Small Toad (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 73).

Keel-headed Toad (Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 73).

Indochinese Dwarf Toad (Chan-ard, 2003, Photograph. Guide Amph. Thailand: 92).

Stream Toad (Grismer, 2012, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Seribuat Arch.: 48).

Malayan Dwarf Toad (Zug and Mulcahy, 2020 "2019", Amph. Rept. S. Tanintharyi: 29).

Dwarf Toad (Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 15). 


Southern mainland Myanmar (Yangon) and southern peninsular Myanmar (Tanintharyi); isolated records in Thailand in Loei, Sisaket, Chon Buri, and Chanthaburi provinces and in southwestern Thailand south along the peninsula (including the off-shore island of Tarutao, Satun Province) to Malaya (including Pulau Tinggi, off the southeastern coast), Sumatra, and extreme western Java; Cardamom Mountains of southwestern Cambodia.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Malaysia, West (Peninsular), Myanmar, Thailand


See Taylor, 1962, Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull., 43: 329–332, and Bourret, 1942, Batr. Indochine: 181–183, for synonymy and discussion. See also Berry, 1975, Amph. Fauna Peninsular Malaysia: 50. Inger, 1966, Fieldiana, Zool., 52: 58, thought Bufo parvus might be a subspecies of Ingerophrynus biporcatus, but see Iskandar, 1998, Amph. Java Bali: 46. In the Bufo biporcatus group of Inger, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 107. See brief account and photo by Manthey and Grossmann, 1997, Amph. Rept. Südostasiens: 34–35. Reported for southwestern Cambodia by Ohler, Swan, and Daltry, 2002, Raffles Bull. Zool., 50: 465–481. Chanda, Das, and Dubois, 2001 "2000", Hamadryad, 25: 103, briefly discussed location of types. Nutphund, 2001, Amph. Thailand: 73, provided a brief characterization and photograph (as Bufo parvas). Neang and Holden, 2008, Field Guide Amph. Cambodia: 53, provided a photograph, brief account of identification, ecology, and range in Cambodia. Grismer, Chan, Grismer, Wood, and Ahmad, 2010, Russ. J. Herpetol., 17: 147–160, reported localities from the Banjaran Bintang Mountains, northwestern peninsular Malaysia. Chan-ard, Seangthianchai, and Makchai, 2011, Thailand Nat. Hist. Mus. J., 5: 43, provided a record for Khao Soi Dao Wildlife Sanctuary, Chanthaburi Province, Thailand. Chan-ard, Cota, and Makchai, 2011, Amph. E. Region Thailand: 32–33, provided a brief account for eastern Thailand and photograph. See brief account by Grismer, 2012, Field Guide Amph. Rept. Seribuat Arch.: 48–49, for the Seribuat Archipelago, West Malaysia. Nidup, Wangkulangkul, Satasook, Bates, and Juthong, 2013, Proc. World Biodiversity Congr., 2013: 1–13, reported a population on Tarutao Island, Satun Province, Thailand, and detailed its advertisement call. Shahriza and Ibrahim, 2014, Check List, 10: 253–259, provided a photograph and brief natural history observations for a population in Kedah, West Malaysia. Sumarli, Grismer, Anuar, Muin, and Quah, 2015, Check List, 11(4, Art. 1679): 7, reported a specimen from the base of Mount Lawit, Terregganu, West Malaysia, and and reported on natural history and life history. Mulcahy, Lee, Miller, Chand, Thura, and Zug, 2018, ZooKeys, 757: 85–162, a genetically-confirmed record from Tanintharyi Division, Myanmar and noted substantial genetic distance from the Malayan population, suggesting that this name covers a species complex. Srion, Wangkulangkul, and Aowphol, 2018, IOP Conf. Ser.: Earth & Environm. Sci., 197 (012011): 1–7, reported on significant morphological divergence among populations in peninsular Thailand. Chan and Grismer, 2019, BMC Evol. Biol., 19(95): 3, suggested on the basis of sequence divergence between Myanmar and Peninsular Malaysia that this binominal represents a species complex. See comments by Chan, Muin, Anuar, Andam, Razak, and Aziz, 2019, Check List, 15: 1055–1069, who reported new localities in West Malaysia. Niyomwan, Srisom, and Pawangkhanant, 2019, Field Guide Amph. Thailand: 186–187, provided a brief account (photographs, habitat, and range) for Thailand (in Thai). Makchai, Chuaynkern, Safoowong, Chuachat, and Cota, 2020, Amph. N. Thailand: 49, provided photographs, a brief account for Thailand, and a range map. Zug and Mulcahy, 2020 "2019", Amph. Rept. S. Tanintharyi: 29, provided a brief account for South Tanintharyi, peninsular Myanmar. Hui, Ngadi, Md-Zain, Md-Zairi, and Abdul-Latiff, 2020, Biodiversitas, 21: 2425–2429, reported the species from Pulau Tinggi, off the southeastern coast of peninsular Malaysia. Hong, Anuar, Grismer, and Quah, 2021, Check List, 17: 793, reported the species from Batu Hampar Recreational Forest, Kedah, West Malaysia. Zug, 2022, Smithson. Contrib. Zool., 653: 15, discussed identification, habitat, and range in Myanmar. 


External links:

Please note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. We are not responsible for their content.