Rhaebo ceratophrys (Boulenger, 1882)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhaebo > Species: Rhaebo ceratophrys

English Names

Horned Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41).


Upper Amazonian Colombia, southern Venezuela (Cerro Neblina and Cerro Marahuaca), eastern Ecuador, northeastern Peru (Loreto), and intervening border areas of western Amazonian Brazil.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela


See Hoogmoed, 1977, Zool. Meded., Leiden, 51: 265–275, and Hoogmoed, 1990, in Peters and Hutterer (eds.), Vert. Tropics: 113–123, for discussion. Rodríguez and Duellman, 1994, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 22: 12–13, provided a brief account.  Barrio-Amorós, 1999 "1998", Acta Biol. Venezuelica, 18: 7, noted that the only specimen from Venezuela is a juvenile from Temiche, and suggested identifying this from other members of Rhinella is sufficiently difficult as to require additional verification. Barrio-Amorós, 2004, Rev. Ecol. Lat. Am., 9: 3, noted Venezuelan distribution and relevant literature, as well as confusion in the literature with Rhinella nasica. Fouquet, Gaucher, Blanc, and Vélez-Rodriguez, 2007, Zootaxa, 1663: 18, excluded this species from the Rhinella margaritifera group. Fenolio, Mendelson, and Lamar, 2012, S. Am. J. Herpetol., 7: 9–15, rediagnosed the species and provided additional data on adult variation, ecology, and range. Rojas-Runjaic, Camargo-Siliet, Carvalho, and La Marca, 2017, Check List, 13(1: 2035): 1–6, reported on new records from Venezuela and mapped the known range. Acosta-Galvis and Señaris, 2018, Vol. 6, Fauna Silvestre Escudo Guayanés: 86, noted the species in Guaviare and Caquetá Provinces, Colombia. See Barrio-Amorós, Rojas-Runjaic, and Señaris, 2019, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 13 (1: e180): 15, for remarks on taxonomy, range, and literature. Señaris and Rojas-Runjaic, 2020, in Rull and Carnaval (eds.), Neotrop. Divers. Patterns Process.: 571–632, commented on range and conservation status in the Venezuelan Guayana. Pereira, Carvalho, Almeida, Rojas-Zamora, Gordo, Frazão, Ávila, and Menin, 2021, Herpetol. Notes, 14: 435–438, mapped records from western Amazonas, Brazil, and discussed the range. Gagliardi-Urrutia, García Dávila, Jaramillo-Martinez, Rojas-Padilla, Rios-Alva, Aguilar-Manihuari, Pérez-Peña, Castroviejo-Fisher, Simões, Estivals, Guillen Huaman, Castro Ruiz, Angulo Chávez, Mariac, Duponchelle, and Renno, 2022, Anf. Loreto: 44–45, provided a brief account, dot map, and genetic barcode for Loreto, Peru.  

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