Rhaebo ceratophrys (Boulenger, 1882)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhaebo > Species: Rhaebo ceratophrys

English Names

Horned Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41).

Distribution

Upper Amazonian Colombia, southern Venezuela (Cerro Neblina and Cerro Marahuaca), eastern Ecuador, northeastern Peru (Loreto), and intervening border areas of western Amazonian Brazil.

Comment

See Hoogmoed, 1977, Zool. Meded., Leiden, 51: 265–275, and Hoogmoed, 1990, in Peters and Hutterer (eds.), Vert. Tropics: 113–123, for discussion. Rodríguez and Duellman, 1994, Univ. Kansas Mus. Nat. Hist. Spec. Publ., 22: 12–13, provided a brief account.  Barrio-Amorós, 1999 "1998", Acta Biol. Venezuelica, 18: 7, noted that the only specimen from Venezuela is a juvenile from Temiche, and suggested identifying this from other members of Rhinella is sufficiently difficult as to require additional verification. Barrio-Amorós, 2004, Rev. Ecol. Latino Am., 9: 3, noted Venezuelan distribution and relevant literature, as well as confusion in the literature with Rhinella nasica. Fouquet, Gaucher, Blanc, and Vélez-Rodriguez, 2007, Zootaxa, 1663: 18, excluded this species from the Rhinella margaritifera group. Fenolio, Mendelson, and Lamar, 2012, S. Am. J. Herpetol., 7: 9–15, rediagnosed the species and provided additional data on adult variation, ecology, and range. Rojas-Runjaic, Camargo-Siliet, Carvalho, and La Marca, 2017, Check List, 13(1: 2035): 1–6, reported on new records from Venezuela and mapped the known range. Acosta-Galvis and Señaris, 2018, Vol. 6, Fauna Silvestre Escudo Guayanés: 86, noted the species in Guaviare and Caquetá Provinces, Colombia. See Barrio-Amorós, Rojas-Runjaic, and Señaris, 2019, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 13 (1: e180): 15, for remarks on taxonomy, range, and literature. Señaris and Rojas-Runjaic, 2020, in Rull and Carnaval (eds.), Neotrop. Divers. Patterns Process.: 571–632, commented on range and conservation status in the Venezuelan Guayana. Pereira, Carvalho, Almeida, Rojas-Zamora, Gordo, Frazão, Ávila, and Menin, 2021, Herpetol. Notes, 14: 435–438, mapped records from western Amazonas, Brazil, and discussed the range. 

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