Rhaebo glaberrimus (Günther, 1869)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhaebo > Species: Rhaebo glaberrimus

English Names

Cundinamarca Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41).


Amazonian Colombia (departments of Norte de Santander, Boyacá, Casanare, Cundinamarca, and Meta) in the eastern piedmont of the Cordillera Oriental, 520–1240 m elevation; Santa Cruz Forest Reserve, Loreto, northeastern Peru; and on the southeastern border of the Cordillera de Mérida in the state of Táchira, Venezuela, at 300–1470 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Colombia, Peru, Venezuela


Chacón-Ortiz, Diaz de Pascual, and Barrio-Amorós, 2002 "2000", Acta Biol. Venezuelica, 20: 65–69, provided the Venezuela records and disputed suggestions (e.g., Hoogmoed, 1990, in Peters and Hutterer (eds.), Vert. Tropics: 113–123) that Rhaebo glaberrimus might be conspecific with Rhaebo guttatus (as Bufo). Barrio-Amorós, 2004, Rev. Ecol. Lat. Am., 9: 3, noted Venezuelan distribution and relevant literature. Duellman, 1978, Misc. Publ. Mus. Nat. Hist. Univ. Kansas, 65: 116–117, provided a brief account.  Lynch, 2006, Caldasia, 28: 137, discussed misidentifications in Colombia. Mueses-Cisneros, Cisneros-Heredia, and McDiarmid, 2012, Zootaxa, 3447: 22–40, redelimited the species range with respect to the newly recognized Rhaebo ecuadorensis and commented on confusion with that species in Peru and Bolivia. Meza-Joya, Chinchilla-Lemus, Ramos, Armesto, and Acevedo-Rincón, 2019, Herpetol. Notes, 12: 61–69, provided new Colombian localities and discussed the range (including a dot map) and previous misidentifications. See Barrio-Amorós, Rojas-Runjaic, and Señaris, 2019, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 13 (1: e180): 13, for remarks on distribution and literature. Metcalf, Marsh, Torres Pacaya, Graham, and Gunnels, 2020, Herpetol. Notes, 13: 753–767, reported the species from the Santa Cruz Forest Reserve, Loreto, northeastern Peru.

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