Rhinella acutirostris (Spix, 1824)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella acutirostris

Bufo (Oxyrhynchus) acutirostris Spix, 1824, Animal. Nova Spec. Nov. Test. Ran. Brasil.: 50. Type(s): Not designated, although including animal figured on pl. 21, fig. 3 in the original publication. This specimen considered the holotype and in the ZSM according to Hoogmoed and Gruber, 1983, Spixiana, München, Suppl., 9: 319-415. Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 159, considered the holotype to be ZSM 1147/0. Type locality: "flumen Amazonum" = Amazon River, Brazil.

Bufo (Rhinella) acutirostrisCuvier, 1829, Regne Animal., Ed. 2, 2: 111, by implication.

Rhinella acutirostrisFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365.

English Names

None noted.


Northern Venezuela to central Amazonas and Rondônia (Brazil), eastern Colombia, eastern Ecuador, and northeastern Peru. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela


See discussion by Hoogmoed, 1986, in Rocek (ed.), Studies in Herpetol.: 147-150, and Hoogmoed, 1990, in Peters and Hutterer (eds.), Vert. Tropics: 117-120, who removed this species from the synonymy of Bufo margaritifer (as Bufo typhonius), where it had been placed by Duméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 6: 719, and Günther, 1859 "1858", Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus.: 69; Steindachner, 1867, Reise Österreichischen Fregatte Novara, Zool., Amph.: 47; and Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 317. The diagnostic differences between this form and geographically proximate members of the taxon are not well documented, nor are the species' distributions. See comment under Rhinella margaritifera. See comment under Rhinella alata. Gorzula and Señaris, 1999 "1998", Scient. Guaianae, 8: 19, suggested that Rhinella margaritifera (as Bufo margaritifer) is found in southern Venezuela and Rhinella alata (as Bufo alatus) is found north of the Orinoco. César L. Barrio-Amorós, personal commun., notes that no specifically identified vouchers exist for Venezuela. See comments under Rhinella alata. In the Rhinella margaritifera clade, Rhinella margaritifera group of Pereyra, Blotto, Baldo, Chaparro, Ron, Elias-Costa, Iglesias, Venegas, Thomé, Ospina-Sarria, Maciel, Rada, Kolenc, Borteiro, Rivera-Correa, Rojas-Runjaic, Moravec, De la Riva, Wheeler, Castroviejo-Fisher, Grant, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2021, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 447: 1–156. Fouquet, Ferrão, Rodrigues, Werneck, Prates, Moraes, Hrbek, Chaparro, Lima, Perez, Pansonato, Carvalho, Almeida, Gordo, Farias, Milto, Roberto, Rojas-Zamora, Ron, Guerra Batista, Recoder, Camacho, Mamani, Rainha, and Ávila, 2024, Syst. Biodiversity, 22 (1, 2291086): Appendix 2, discussed systematics and range and suggested that the nominal species is composed of a number of independent lineages all waiting on additional evidence for sufficient understanding. 


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