Rhinella arenarum (Hensel, 1867)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella arenarum

Bufo arenarum Hensel, 1867, Arch. Naturgesch., 33: 143. Syntypes: 7 specimens noted although location of deposit not designated. Kwet, Di-Bernardo, and Maneyro, 2006, Iheringia, Zool., 96: 484, located 3 of 7 syntypes in the ZMB and designated ZMB 6779 as lectotype. Type locality: "bei der Stadt Rio-Grande do Sul" (= near the city of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil); stated as "Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul", Brazil, by Bokermann, 1966, Lista Anot. Local. Tipo Anf. Brasil.: 18.

Bufo mendocinus Philippi, 1869, Arch. Naturgesch., 35: 44. Holotype: MNHNC by original designation. Type locality: "Provinz Mendoza . . . bei Vistaflor", Argentina. Synonymy by Boulenger, 1884, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 5, 14: 389; Boulenger, 1886, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., Ser. 5, 18: 442; Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 142. 

Bufo marinus var. platensis Jiménez de la Espada, 1875, Vert. Viaje Pacif. Verif. 1862–1865: 202. Syntypes: 34 specimens, in MNCN; given as 3101–3113, 3131–34, –31–34given as MNCN 3101-3113, 3135-3143, 3145-50 (Rio-Grande-do-Sul, Brasil); 3131-3134 (no data); 3144 (La Plata, Argentina); 15982 (La Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina), by González-Fernández, 2006, Graellsia, 62: 125, and González-Fernández, García-Díez, and San Segundo, 2009, Spixiana, München, 32: 268, with discussion of ambiguities. Type locality: "Montevideo . . . Rio Grande do Sul . . . Córdoba, Tucumán y Campo San Roque". Synonymy (with Bufo arenarum) by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 314. Considered a synonym of Bufo marinus by Savage, 1978, in Espada's Vert. Viaje Pacif.: vii-xvii (in error?), without discussion. 

Phryniscus connectens Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 24. Type(s): MNHNC but number of specimens not noted in the original publication. Type locality: "Montevideo", Uruguay. Synonymy (with Bufo spinulosus) by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 267. Synonymy (with Bufo arenarum) by Klappenbach, 1968, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 23: 148.

Bufo arenariusLutz, 1934, Mem. Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, 28: 120, 144. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Bufo arenarumGallardo, 1964, Neotropica, 10: 24; Gallardo, 1965, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 17: 65.

Bufo arenarum mendocinusGallardo, 1964, Neotropica, 10: 24; Gallardo, 1965, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 17: 70; Laurent, 1969, Acta Zool. Lilloana, 25: 81.

Bufo arenarum platensisGallardo, 1964, Neotropica, 10: 24; Gallardo, 1965, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 17: 70. Status as subspecies rejected by Laurent, 1969, Acta Zool. Lilloana, 25: 70.

Bufo arenarum chaguar Gallardo, 1965, Neotropica, 11: 84. Holotype: MACN 18922, by original designation. Type locality: "Argentina, Salta, Pocitos". Status rejected by Laurent, 1969, Acta Zool. Lilloana, 25: 70, 75.

Chaunus arenarumFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364; Savage and Bolaños, 2009, Zootaxa, 2005: 4, by implication.

Rhinella arenarumChaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 211, by implication; Pramuk, Robertson, Sites, and Noonan, 2008, Global Ecol. Biogeograph., 17: 76.

English Names

Argentine Toad (Ananjeva, Borkin, Darevsky, and Orlov, 1988, Dict. Amph. Rept. Five Languages: 37).

Common Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 40).


Central Bolivia east of the Andes (departments of Cochabamba, Chuquisaca, Santa Cruz, and Tarija) south to Chubut Province, Argentina; and allopatric population along the coastal plain of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, to the eastern and southern Uruguay; likely to be found in Paraguay.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Uruguay

Likely/Controversially Present: Paraguay


In the Bufo marinus group according to Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 57. Laurent, 1969, Acta Zool. Lilloana, 25: 67-80, demonstrated that most subspecies could not be maintained; this was further supported by Cei, 1972 "1971", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 28: 91-105, and followed by Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 173-178 (although he implied that some subspecies might be distinct species), but Braun, 1978, Iheringia, Zool., 52: 77, still recognized four subspecies. See also account (under Bufo arenarum arenarum) by Klappenbach and Langone, 1992, An. Mus. Nac. Hist. Nat. Montevideo, Ser. 2, 8: 171-172. Olmos and Maneyro, 1998, Cuad. Herpetol., 12: 50, discussed the range in northeastern Uruguay (now Rhinella achavalii). De la Riva, Köhler, Lötters, and Reichle, 2000, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 14: 26, noted literature confusion with Rhinella poeppigii (as Bufo). Lavilla and Cei, 2001, Monogr. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino, 28: 21-23, discussed recent literature regarding this species. See brief account by Köhler, 2000, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 48: 82. Kwet, Di-Bernardo, and Maneyro, 2006, Iheringia, Zool., 96: 479-485, provided a key to distinguish this species from other members of the Rhinella marina group. Brusquetti and Lavilla, 2006, Cuad. Herpetol., 20: 24, briefly discussed the absence of any vouchers of this species from Paraguay, although its presence in the country is likely. Vera Candioti, 2007, Zootaxa, 1600: 1–175, reported on detailed larval morphology. Maneyro and Kwet, 2008, Stuttgart. Beit. Naturkd., Ser. A, Neue Ser., 1: 95-121, provided discussion of taxonomic, geographical, and conservation status as well as natural history. Céspedez, 1996, Herpetol. Rev., 27: 148, provided a record for Chaco Province, Argentina, and commented on the range in that country. Vallinoto, Sequeira, Sodré, Bernardi, Sampaio, and Schneider, 2010, Zool. Scripta, 39: 128-140, and Maciel, Collevatti, Colli, and Schwartz, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 57: 787-797, reported on the molecular phylogenetics of the Rhinella marina group, including this species. Salas, Zavattieri, di Tada, Martino, and Bridarolli, 1998, Cuad. Herpetol., 12: 37–48, discussed the call. In the Rhinella marina clade, Rhinella marina group of Pereyra, Blotto, Baldo, Chaparro, Ron, Elias-Costa, Iglesias, Venegas, Thomé, Ospina-Sarria, Maciel, Rada, Kolenc, Borteiro, Rivera-Correa, Rojas-Runjaic, Moravec, De la Riva, Wheeler, Castroviejo-Fisher, Grant, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2021, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 447: 1–156. Elías Panigo, Fernández Bellone, Roggio, and Carezzano, 2022, Intropica, 17: 9–18, reported on comparative larval morphometrics of populations in different habitats. 

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