Rhinella arunco (Molina, 1782)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella arunco

Rana arunco Molina, 1782, Saggio Stor. Nat. Chili: 216. Types: Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: "Chili"; given as "Penco, Talcahuano (Concepción)", Chile, by Cei, 1962, Batr. Chile: 45.

Bufo aruncoSchneider, 1799, Hist. Amph. Nat.: 226; Cei, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 82–92.

Bufo chilensis Tschudi, 1838, Classif. Batr.: 51, 88. Syntypes: MNHNP 4932 (Coquimbo, Chili), 4933–34 (Chili), 4935–35a (Valapaiso); restricted (apparently) to MNHNP 4935 (from Valapaiso) by Ortiz and Lescure, 1990 "1989", Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 11: 115. Type locality: "Chili"; restricted to Valapaiso, Chile, by Ortiz and Lescure, 1990 "1989", Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 11: 115, by lectotype designation. Synonymy by Cei, 1972 "1971", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 28: 93 (but employed the name Bufo chilensis) and Ortiz and Lescure, 1990 "1989", Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. Paris, Sect. A, Zool., 11: 115.

Bufo chilensisDuméril and Bibron, 1841, Erp. Gen., 6: 678.

Pleurodema aruncoGirard, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 6: 420.

Phryne chilensisFitzinger, 1861 "1860", Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 42: 415.

Bufo spinulosus aruncoCei, 1962 "1961", Invest. Zool. Chilen., 7: 59–81.

Bufo arunco aruncoCei, 1962 "1961", Invest. Zool. Chilen., 7: 77.

Bufo spinulosus chilensisGallardo, 1965, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 17: 62.

Chaunus aruncoFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364; Savage and Bolaños, 2009, Zootaxa, 2005: 4, by implication.

Rhinella aruncoChaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 211, by implication.

Rhinella chilensisPramuk, Robertson, Sites, and Noonan, 2008, Global Ecol. Biogeograph., 17: 76.

English Names

Arunco (Shaw, 1802, Gen. Zool., 3(1): 175).

Concepcion Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 40).


Central Chilean arid steppe from Huentelauquén (Región do Coquimbo) to Puren (Region de La Araucanía), Chile.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Chile

Endemic: Chile


In the Bufo spinulosus group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 57. Considered a senior synonym of Rhinella spinulosa (as Bufo) by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 274, and Cei, 1962, Batr. Chile: 45, but recognized as a distinct species by Cei, 1972 "1971", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 28: 91; and Cei, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 83 (as Bufo chilensis). Veloso, Sallaberry-Ayerza, Correa-Quezada, and Méndez, 2012, J. Herpetol., 46: 568–577, discussed hybridization with Rhinella atacamensisCorrea-Quezada, Méndez-Torres, Araya, Lobos, and Palma, 2013, Rev. Chilena Hist. Nat., 86: 115–125, reported on hybridization with Rhinella atacamensis. See Lobos, Vidal-Maldonado, Correa-Quezada, Labra-Lillo, Díaz-Páez, Charrier, Rabanal, Díaz-Vidal, and Tala, 2013, Anf. Chile Conserv. 1–104, for photograph, comments on conservation status, and range. In the Rhinella marina clade, Rhinella arunco group of Pereyra, Blotto, Baldo, Chaparro, Ron, Elias-Costa, Iglesias, Venegas, Thomé, Ospina-Sarria, Maciel, Rada, Kolenc, Borteiro, Rivera-Correa, Rojas-Runjaic, Moravec, De la Riva, Wheeler, Castroviejo-Fisher, Grant, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2021, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 447: 1–156, who reported on molecular and morphological phylogenetics. 

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