Rhinella atacamensis (Cei, 1962)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella atacamensis

Bufo lugubrosus Girard, 1853, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 6: 424. Holotype: Not stated, but USNM 16359 according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 35. Type locality: "Valparaíso, Chili". Synonymy with Bufo spinulosus by Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 302; with Bufo atacamensis by Lavilla, Rabanal, Langone, Vásquez, and Castro-Carrasco, 2019, Zootaxa, 4567: 185, who considered this name to be a nomen oblitum under Art. 23.9 of the ICZN (1999).

Phrynoidis lugubrosus — Cope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 358.

Bufo spinulosus atacamensis Cei, 1962 "1961", Invest. Zool. Chilen., 7: 77. Syntypes: Including IBAUNC 0421-0422 (adults) and several juveniles, by original designation. Type locality: "Río Huasco, Vallenar", Chile.

Bufo arunco atacamensisCei, 1962 "1961", Invest. Zool. Chilen., 7: 77.

Bufo atacamensisCei, 1972 "1971", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 28: 91; Cei, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 83.

Chaunus atacamensisFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364; Savage and Bolaños, 2009, Zootaxa, 2005: 4, by implication.

Rhinella atacamensisChaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 211, by implication; Pramuk, Robertson, Sites, and Noonan, 2008, Global Ecol. Biogeograph., 17: 76.

English Names

Vallenar Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 40).

Atacama Toad (Sallaberry-Ayerza and Méndez-Torres, 2002, Herpetol. Rev., 33: 218).


Atacama desert and associated Andean piedmont and inter-Andean basins, south of Paposo (25° 01´ S) to Rio del Tororal (31° 59´ S), Chile, 0–2574 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Chile

Endemic: Chile


In the Bufo spinulosus group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 57. Considered a distinct species by Cei, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 82-92; still treated as a subspecies of Bufo spinulosus by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 84. Cei, 1962, Batr. Chile: 42-44, provided an account (as Bufo spinulosus atacemensis). Sallaberry-Ayerza and Méndez-Torres, 2002, Herpetol. Rev., 33: 218-219, commented on the range and provided a range extension. Sallaberry-Ayerza, Soto-M., Correa-Quezada, and Méndez-Torres, 2007, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 214, provided range extensions and discussed the range. Correa-Quezada, Sallaberry-Ayerza, Jara-Arancio, Lobos, Soto-M., and Méndez-Torres, 2008, Check List, 4: 478-484, detailed the range in and discussed all known records as well as providing evidence of allopatry of this species and Rhinella arunco. Veloso, Sallaberry-Ayerza, Correa-Quezada, and Méndez, 2012, J. Herpetol., 46: 568-577, found an area of contact in the Estero Pupío area of Chile, and discussed hybridization with Rhinella aruncoCorrea-Quezada, Méndez-Torres, Araya, Lobos, and Palma, 2013, Rev. Chilena Hist. Nat., 86: 115-125, reported on hybridization with Rhinella arunco. See Lobos, Vidal-Maldonado, Correa-Quezada, Labra-Lillo, Díaz-Páez, Charrier, Rabanal, Díaz-Vidal, and Tala, 2013, Anf. Chile Conserv.: 1–104, for photograph, comments on conservation status, and range. Saez, Hornauer–Hughes, Mery, and Blohm, 2020, Bol. Chil. Herpetol., 7: 55–57, provided a record from Los Maitenes, Región de Valparaíso, Chile. In the Rhinella marina clade, Rhinella arunco group of Pereyra, Blotto, Baldo, Chaparro, Ron, Elias-Costa, Iglesias, Venegas, Thomé, Ospina-Sarria, Maciel, Rada, Kolenc, Borteiro, Rivera-Correa, Rojas-Runjaic, Moravec, De la Riva, Wheeler, Castroviejo-Fisher, Grant, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2021, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 447: 1–156, who reported on molecular and morphological phylogenetics. Durán, Méndez, and Correa-Quezada, 2021, BMC Biol., 6 (25): 1–6, reported on clinal variation in body size. 

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