Rhinella azarai (Gallardo, 1965)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella azarai

Bufo granulosus azarai Gallardo, 1965, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 134: 120. Holotype: BMNH 1955.1.5.47, by original designation. Type locality: "Primavera, Upper Paraguay, Paraguay".

Rhinella azaraiNarvaes and Rodrigues, 2009, Arq. Zool., São Paulo, 40: 29.

English Names

None noted.


Lowlands of northern Corrientes and and southern Misiones, Argentina, through eastern Paraguay to western Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay


R.I. Crombie In Hoogmoed, 1985, in Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 47, reported Rhinella azarai (as Bufo granulosus azarai) to approach Rhinella granulosa (as Bufo granulosus granulosus) without evidence of intergradation. Narvaes and Rodrigues, 2009, Arq. Zool., São Paulo, 40: 1–73, revised the Rhinella granulosa group, documented this species, and provided a species account. Brusquetti and Lavilla, 2006, Cuad. Herpetol., 20: 18, briefly discussed the range of Rhinella granulosa azarai (now Rhinella azarai) and Rhinella granulosa major (now Rhinella major) in Paraguay. Sugai, Souza, Uetanabaro, and Landgref, 2012, Herpetol. Rev., 43: 440, provided a record for Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and commented on the range. Blotto, Pereyra, and Baldo, 2014, J. Herpetol., 48: 434–438, reported on larval morphology. Guerra, Baldo, Rosset, Borteiro, and Kolenc, 2011, Zootaxa, 3092: 26–42, reported on the advertisement and release calls. Weiler, Núñez, Airaldi, Lavilla, Peris, and Baldo, 2013, Anf. Paraguay: 38, provided a brief account, image, and dot map for Paraguay. Simon, Machado, and Marroig, 2016, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B, Biol. Sci., 283 (20161783): 1–10, reported on skull evolution within the Rhinella granulosa group and provided a dot map. Ingaramo, Acosta, Zaracho, Falcione, Etchepare, Semhan, and Alvarez, 2012, Cuad. Herpetol., 26: 55–58, provided information on diet and provided a spot map for the species. In the Rhinella marina clade, Rhinella granulosa group of Pereyra, Blotto, Baldo, Chaparro, Ron, Elias-Costa, Iglesias, Venegas, Thomé, Ospina-Sarria, Maciel, Rada, Kolenc, Borteiro, Rivera-Correa, Rojas-Runjaic, Moravec, De la Riva, Wheeler, Castroviejo-Fisher, Grant, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2021, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 447: 1–156. Rivera, Prates, Caldwell, Rodrigues, and Fujita, 2022, Heredity, 130: 14–21, reported on mtDNA phylogenetics in the Rhinella granulosa group, including this species.  

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