Rhinella azarai (Gallardo, 1965)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella azarai

Bufo granulosus azarai Gallardo, 1965, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 134: 120. Holotype: BMNH 1955.1.5.47, by original designation. Type locality: "Primavera, Upper Paraguay, Paraguay".

Rhinella azaraiNarvaes and Rodrigues, 2009, Arq. Zool., São Paulo, 40: 29.

English Names

None noted.


Lowlands of northern Corrientes and and southern Misiones, Argentina, through eastern Paraguay to western Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.


R.I. Crombie In Hoogmoed, 1985, in Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 47, reported Rhinella azarai (as Bufo granulosus azarai) to approach Rhinella granulosa (as Bufo granulosus granulosus) without evidence of intergradation. Narvaes and Rodrigues, 2009, Arq. Zool., São Paulo, 40: 1–73, revised the Rhinella granulosa group, documented this species, and provided a species account. Brusquetti and Lavilla, 2006, Cuad. Herpetol., 20: 18, briefly discussed the range of Rhinella granulosa azarai (now Rhinella azarai) and Rhinella granulosa major (now Rhinella major) in Paraguay. Sugai, Souza, Uetanabaro, and Landgref, 2012, Herpetol. Rev., 43: 440, provided a record for Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and commented on the range. Blotto, Pereyra, and Baldo, 2014, J. Herpetol., 48: 434–438, reported on larval morphology. Guerra, Baldo, Rosset, Borteiro, and Kolenc, 2011, Zootaxa, 3092: 26–42, reported on the advertisement and release calls. Weiler, Núñez, Airaldi, Lavilla, Peris, and Baldo, 2013, Anf. Paraguay: 38, provided a brief account, image, and dot map for Paraguay. Simon, Machado, and Marroig, 2016, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B, Biol. Sci., 283 (20161783): 1–10, reported on skull evolution within the Rhinella granulosa group and provided a dot map. Ingaramo, Acosta, Zaracho, Falcione, Etchepare, Semhan, and Alvarez, 2012, Cuad. Herpetol., 26: 55–58, provided information on diet and provided a spot map for the species. In the Rhinella marina clade, Rhinella granulosa group of Pereyra, Blotto, Baldo, Chaparro, Ron, Elias-Costa, Iglesias, Venegas, Thomé, Ospina-Sarria, Maciel, Rada, Kolenc, Borteiro, Rivera-Correa, Rojas-Runjaic, Moravec, De la Riva, Wheeler, Castroviejo-Fisher, Grant, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2021, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 447: 1–156. Rivera, Prates, Caldwell, Rodrigues, and Fujita, 2022, Heredity, 130: 14–21, reported on mtDNA phylogenetics in the Rhinella granulosa group, including this species.  

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