Rhinella castaneotica (Caldwell, 1991)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella castaneotica

Bufo castaneoticus Caldwell, 1991, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 37: 389. Holotype: MZUSP 67162, by original designation. Type locality: "primary lowland rain forest near Cachoeira Jaruá, Rio Xingu, State of Pará, Brazil, . . . . approximately 03° 22′ S, 51° 51′ W".

Rhinella castaneoticaFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365.

English Names

Para Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41).


Amazon Basin of Colombia, Peru, Brazil (Amazonas, Pará, and Rondonia), and Departamento Pando, Amazonian Bolivia, presumably widespread in the upper Amazon Basin.


In the Bufo typhonius group (= Rhinella) according to the original publication. Köhler and Lötters, 1999, Bonn. Zool. Beitr., 48: 259-273, discussed the call, provided the Bolivian record and discussed the species' range. França and Venâncio, 2010, Biotemas, 23: 71–84, provided a record for the municipality of Boca do Acre, Amazonas, with a brief discussion of the range. In the Rhinella margaritifera clade, Rhinella margaritifera group of Pereyra, Blotto, Baldo, Chaparro, Ron, Elias-Costa, Iglesias, Venegas, Thomé, Ospina-Sarria, Maciel, Rada, Kolenc, Borteiro, Rivera-Correa, Rojas-Runjaic, Moravec, De la Riva, Wheeler, Castroviejo-Fisher, Grant, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2021, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 447: 1–156.

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