Rhinella castaneotica (Caldwell, 1991)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella castaneotica

Bufo castaneoticus Caldwell, 1991, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 37: 389. Holotype: MZUSP 67162, by original designation. Type locality: "primary lowland rain forest near Cachoeira Jaruá, Rio Xingu, State of Pará, Brazil, . . . . approximately 03° 22′ S, 51° 51′ W".

Chaunus castaneoticusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 365.

Rhinella castaneotica — Chaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 211, by implication; Fouquet, Vences, Salducci, Meyer, Marty, Blanc, and Gilles, 2007, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 43: 573. 

English Names

Para Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41).


Amazon Basin of Brazil (Amazonas, Pará, Amapá [see comment]) and French Guiana; records from Colombia (Amazonas and Caquetá), Peru (Ucayali), and likely Acre, Brazil, require genetic confirmation. See comment for ranges of unnamed associated species. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Brazil, Colombia, French Guiana, Peru


In the Bufo typhonius group (= Rhinella) according to the original publication. Malambo-L. and Madrid-Ordóñez, 2008, Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. Exact. Fis. Nat., 32: 285–289, provided a record for Municipio de Florencia, Cauquetá, Colombia, and briefly outlined the range in Colombia. França and Venâncio, 2010, Biotemas, 23: 71–84, provided a record for the municipality of Boca do Acre, Amazonas, with a brief discussion of the range. Bernarde, Machado, and Turci, 2011, Biota Neotrop., 11: 117–144, reported specimens from Reserva Extrativista Riozinho da Liberdade, Acre, Brazil. In the Rhinella margaritifera clade, Rhinella margaritifera group of Pereyra, Blotto, Baldo, Chaparro, Ron, Elias-Costa, Iglesias, Venegas, Thomé, Ospina-Sarria, Maciel, Rada, Kolenc, Borteiro, Rivera-Correa, Rojas-Runjaic, Moravec, De la Riva, Wheeler, Castroviejo-Fisher, Grant, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2021, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 447: 1–156. Ferrão, Souza, Colatreli, Hanken, and Lima, 2022, Syst. Biodiversity, 20 (1: 2039317): 11, detailed the morphometrics and advertisement call from Brasil Novo, Pará, Brazil, noted substantial confusion in identifications of sample reported as Rhinella casteneotica in various phylogenetic studies, and noted that the Rondônia, Brazil, and Bolivia population represents a new species, which they named Rhinella teotoniensis. Populations from Peru and Colombia require genetic confirmation. They also noted that nominal Rhinella castaneotica remains composed of three lineages, Rhinella castaneotica sensu stricto (south of the Tapajós and Amazon rivers in Pará, Brazil), Rhinella castaneotica GS (Amapá, Brazil, and French Guiana), and Rhinella castaneotica MT (northern Mato Grosso on the southwestern Pará border, Brazil). Taucce, Costa-Campos, Carvalho, and Michalski, 2022, Eur. J. Taxon., 836: 96–130, reported on distribution (as Rhinella cf castaneotica), literature, and conservation status for Amapá, Brazil. Lescure, Dewynter, Frétey, Ineich, Ohler, Vidal, and De Massary, 2022, Bull. Soc. Herpetol. France, 181(5): 1–7, confirmed the species in French Guiana. Crnobrna, Santa-Cruz Farfan, Gallegos, López-Rojas, Llanqui, Panduro Pisco, and Kelsen Arbaiza, 2023, Check List, 19: 4441, provided a record from Ucayali Department, central-eastern Peru.  

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