Rhinella exostosica Ferrão, Lima, Ron, Santos, and Hanken, 2020

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella exostosica

Rhinella exostosica Ferrão, Lima, Ron, Santos, and Hanken, 2020, Copeia, 108: 970. Holotype: NPAH 41323, by original designation. Type locality: "Jací Direito Sampling Module, 09°27′44″S, 64°23′32″W, east bank of the Jací-Paraná River (a tributary of the east bank of the upper Madeira River), municipality of Porto Velho, Rondônia, Brazil". Zoobank publication registration: E7DDAB0A-97F9-4687-B4A7-C3939440EB75

English Names

None noted. 


Amazonian Bolivia (Beni and Pando Departments), Brazil (Rondônia and Amazonas, likely into southern Roraima), and Peru (Departments of Ucayali and Madre de Dios). See comment. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Bolivia, Brazil, Peru


In the Rhinella margaritifera complex according to the original publication, where morphology, molecular phylogenetics, literature, and advertisement call were summarized. Advertisement call, larval morphology, life history reported (as Bufo typhonius) by Duellman, 2005, Cusco Amazonico: 186–189. the Reserva Extrativista do Baixo Juruá, Amazonas, Brazil. Moraes, Rainha, Werneck, Oliveira, Gascon, and Carvalho, 2022, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 62(e202262054): 23–24, reported specimens from the Reserva Extrativista do Baixo Juruá, Amazonas, Brazil. Fouquet, Ferrão, Rodrigues, Werneck, Prates, Moraes, Hrbek, Chaparro, Lima, Perez, Pansonato, Carvalho, Almeida, Gordo, Farias, Milto, Roberto, Rojas-Zamora, Ron, Guerra Batista, Recoder, Camacho, Mamani, Rainha, and Ávila, 2024, Syst. Biodiversity, 22 (1, 2291086): Appendix 2, placed this in their Rhinella margaritifera clade and summarized the morphological, acoustic, and molecular evidence for its recognition but also noted that populations in the Rio Negro Basin of Amazonia is morphologically and acoustically very similar to and share nuDNA alleles with Rhinella roqueana among others, rendering their status ambiguous. In addition, these authors noted a number of possible unnamed species (1) "Rhinella sp. Purus" in the Purus River Basin of Amazonas, Brazil, (2) Rhinella sp. Aripuana of northwestern Mato Grosso and southeastern Amazonas, Brazil, and (3) Rhinella sp. Madeira of southeastern Amazonas, Brazil, based on various lines of evidence. 

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