Rhinella gnustae (Gallardo, 1967)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella gnustae

English Names

Rio Grande Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41).


Known only from the imprecise type locality (Rio Grande, Jujuy, Argentina). See comment. 

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Argentina, Bolivia


Of uncertain validity according to Cei, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 89. Recognized as a poorly known species by Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 203-204, and belonging to the Bufo veraguensis (formerly Bufo ockendeni) group. Rejected as a member of the Bufo veraguensis group by Duellman and Schulte, 1992, Copeia, 1992: 162-172. See account by Carrizo, 1992, Cuad. Herpetol., 7: 14-23. De la Riva, Köhler, Lötters, and Reichle, 2000, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 14: 58, and Köhler, 2000, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 48: 69, thought this species possibly to occur in Bolivia. Not recollected since the types according to Lavilla and Cei, 2001, Monogr. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino, 28: 25. Lavilla, Barrionuevo, and Baldo, 2002, Cuad. Herpetol., 16: 100–101, implied that this may be a synonym of Rhinella spinulosusFerraro, Blotto, Baldo, Barrasso, Barrionuevo, Basso, Cardozo, Cotichelli, Faivovich, Pereyra, and Lavilla, 2018, in Vaira, Akmentins, and Lavilla (eds.), Cuad. Herpetol., 32 (Supl. 1): 17–19, noted that the taxonomic status of this species remains problematic. In the Rhinella margaritifera clade, Rhinella veraguensis group of Pereyra, Blotto, Baldo, Chaparro, Ron, Elias-Costa, Iglesias, Venegas, Thomé, Ospina-Sarria, Maciel, Rada, Kolenc, Borteiro, Rivera-Correa, Rojas-Runjaic, Moravec, De la Riva, Wheeler, Castroviejo-Fisher, Grant, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2021, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 447: 1–156. 

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