Rhinella major (Müller and Hellmich, 1936)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella major

Bufo granulosus major Müller and Hellmich, 1936, Wissenschaft. Ergebn. Deutschen Gran Chaco Exped., Amph. Rept.: 12. Syntypes: ZSM 153/1928 (18 specimens, lost) and ZSM 202/1929/1–2 according to Glaw and Franzen, 2006, Spixiana, München, 29: 160, who provided additional comments on the types. Narvaes and Rodrigues, 2009, Arq. Zool., São Paulo, 40: 22, reported (via a personal communication from F. Glaw) that the holotype was ZSM 153/1928, but likely destroyed in WWII. Type locality: "San José de Chiquitos", Bolivia.

Bufo manicorensis Gallardo, 1961, Breviora, 141: 1. Holotype: BMNH 1898.3.10.1, by original designation. Type locality: "Manicoré, Rio Madeira, State of Amazonas, Brasil". Synonymy Narvaes and Rodrigues, 2009, Arq. Zool., São Paulo, 40: 22.

Bufo granulosus goeldii Gallardo, 1965, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 134: 111. Holotype: UMMZ 64528, by original designation. Type locality: "Santarém, Pará, Brasil". Synonymy by Narvaes and Rodrigues, 2009, Arq. Zool., São Paulo, 40: 22.

Bufo granulosus minor Gallardo, 1965, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 134: 113. Holotype: MCZ 10089, by original designation. Type locality: "Upper Beni below mouth of Mapiri, Bolivia". Primary homonym of Bufo cinereus var. minor Koch, 1872. Synonymy by Narvaes and Rodrigues, 2009, Arq. Zool., São Paulo, 40: 22.

Bufo granulosus mini Gallardo, 1967, Neotropica, 13: 56. Replacement name for Bufo granulosus minor Gallardo, 1965.

Bufo majorCei, Erspamer, and Roseghini, 1968, Syst. Zool., 17: 240.

Rhinella majorNarvaes and Rodrigues, 2009, Arq. Zool., São Paulo, 40: 22.

English Names

None noted.


Chaco region of Argentina, Paraguay, and Bolivia and in Brazil in open formations along the rivers Beni, Madeira, Amazon (to its mouth), Tapajos, Xingu, and in the state of Amapá, Brazil; likely to be found in Peru and in the vicinity of Leticia, Colombia near to the record at Tabatinga, Amazonas, Brazil.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay

Likely/Controversially Present: Colombia, Peru


R.I. Crombie In Hoogmoed, 1985, in Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 47, reported Rhinella major (as Bufo granulosus goeldi) to approach Rhinella nattereri (as Bufo granulosus nattereri) without evidence of intergradation. Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 65, suggested that Rhinella granulosa major is a distinct species. Köhler, 2000, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 48: 61–62, provided some useful comments on the state of the taxonomy of the Rhinella granulosa complex in Bolivia. Narvaes and Rodrigues, 2009, Arq. Zool., São Paulo, 40: 1–73, revised the Rhinella granulosa group, recognized the species, provided a species account and map, and noted hybridization with Rhinella bergi in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and with Rhinella mirandaribeiroi in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Guerra, Baldo, Rosset, Borteiro, and Kolenc, 2011, Zootaxa, 3092: 26–42, reported on the advertisement and release calls and noted a hybrid zone with Rhinella bergi in northern Argentina. Jansen, Bloch, Schulze, and Pfenninger, 2011, Zool. Scripta, 40: 567–583, reported on genetic variation within Bolivia. Brusquetti and Lavilla, 2006, Cuad. Herpetol., 20: 18, briefly discussed the range of Rhinella granulosa azarai (now Rhinella azarai) and Rhinella granulosa major (now Rhinella major) in Paraguay. Weiler, Núñez, Airaldi, Lavilla, Peris, and Baldo, 2013, Anf. Paraguay: 42, provided a brief account, image, and dot map for Paraguay. Bernardes, Carvalho, and Giaretta, 2015, Zootaxa, 4012: 375–378, reported on the advertisement call and its intraspecific variation. Simon, Machado, and Marroig, 2016, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B, Biol. Sci., 283 (20161783): 1–10, reported on skull evolution within the Rhinella granulosa group and provided a dot map. Grosso, Pereyra, Vera Candioti, Maciel, and Baldo, 2020, S. Am. J. Herpetol., 15: 75–84, described larval morphology of this and close relatives. In the Rhinella marina clade, Rhinella granulosa group of Pereyra, Blotto, Baldo, Chaparro, Ron, Elias-Costa, Iglesias, Venegas, Thomé, Ospina-Sarria, Maciel, Rada, Kolenc, Borteiro, Rivera-Correa, Rojas-Runjaic, Moravec, De la Riva, Wheeler, Castroviejo-Fisher, Grant, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2021, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 447: 1–156. Taucce, Costa-Campos, Carvalho, and Michalski, 2022, Eur. J. Taxon., 836: 96–130, reported on distribution, literature, and conservation status for Amapá, Brazil. Rivera, Prates, Caldwell, Rodrigues, and Fujita, 2022, Heredity, 130: 14–21, reported on mtDNA phylogenetics in the Rhinella granulosa group, including this species. Sanches, Santana, Oliveira-Souza, and Costa-Campos, 2023 "2022", North-West. J. Zool., Romania, 18: 214–217, reported on sexual dimorphism in eastern Brazilian Amazonia.    

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