Rhinella merianae (Gallardo, 1965)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella merianae

Bufo granulosus merianae Gallardo, 1965, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 134: 112. Holotype: AMNH 46531, by original designation. Type locality: "head falls of Essequebo River, British Guiana [= Guyana]".

Rhinella merianaeNarvaes and Rodrigues, 2009, Arq. Zool., São Paulo, 40: 40.

English Names

None noted.


Extreme southeastern Venezuela (Bolívar) and Guyana to extreme western Suriname, and the states of Amazonas and Roraima in Brazil, north of the Amazon River, on the rivers Solimões, Negro, and Branco.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Brazil, Guyana, Suriname, Venezuela


R.I. Crombie in Hoogmoed, 1985, in Frost (ed.), Amph. Species World: 47, reported Rhinella merianae (as Bufo granulosus merianae) to overlap Rhinella nattereri (as Bufo granulosus nattereri). Lescure and Marty, 2000, Collect. Patrimoines Nat., Paris, 45: 56–57, provided a brief account and photo of Rhinella granulosa merianae. Gorzula and Señaris, 1999 "1998", Scient. Guaianae, 8: 15, provided distributional data for the Guianan region of Venezuela and were unable to distinguish subspecies in the region and doubted the validity of Rhinella granulosa merianae. Narvaes and Rodrigues, 2009, Arq. Zool., São Paulo, 40: 1–73, revised the Rhinella granulosa group and provided an account for this species. See Cole, Townsend, Reynolds, MacCulloch, and Lathrop, 2013, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 125: 381, for brief account and records for Guyana. Señaris, Lampo, Rojas-Runjaic, and Barrio-Amorós, 2014, Guía Ilust. Anf. Parque Nac. Canaima: 70–71, provided a brief account for the Parque Nacional de Canaima, Venezuela, and photograph. Silva, Schiesari, and Menin, 2017, Zootaxa, 4294:145–150, reported on larval morphology, clutch size, and egg deposition site. Guerra, Baldo, Rosset, Borteiro, and Kolenc, 2011, Zootaxa, 3092: 26–42, reported on the advertisement and release calls. Simon, Machado, and Marroig, 2016, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B, Biol. Sci., 283 (20161783): 1–10, reported on skull evolution within the Rhinella granulosa group and provided a dot map. Giaretta, Haga, and Andrade, 2018, Phyllomedusa, 17: 255–265, reported on the advertisement call from a population in Roraima, Brazil. See Barrio-Amorós, Rojas-Runjaic, and Señaris, 2019, Amph. Rept. Conserv., 13 (1: e180): 17–19, comments on range and literature for Venezuela. For identification of larvae (as Bufo granulosus) in central Amazonia, Brazil, see Hero, 1990, Amazoniana, 11: 201–262. Señaris and Rojas-Runjaic, 2020, in Rull and Carnaval (eds.), Neotrop. Divers. Patterns Process.: 571–632, commented on range and conservation status in the Venezuelan Guayana. In the Rhinella marina clade, Rhinella granulosa group of Pereyra, Blotto, Baldo, Chaparro, Ron, Elias-Costa, Iglesias, Venegas, Thomé, Ospina-Sarria, Maciel, Rada, Kolenc, Borteiro, Rivera-Correa, Rojas-Runjaic, Moravec, De la Riva, Wheeler, Castroviejo-Fisher, Grant, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2021, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 447: 1–156. Schiesari, Rossa-Feres, Menin, and Hödl, 2022, Zootaxa, 5223: 32–33, detailed larval and metamorph morphology and natural history in central Amazonia, Brazil. Rivera, Prates, Caldwell, Rodrigues, and Fujita, 2022, Heredity, 130: 14–21, reported on mtDNA phylogenetics in the Rhinella granulosa group, including this species.  

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