Rhinella poeppigii (Tschudi, 1845)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella poeppigii

Bufo Poeppigii Tschudi, 1845, Arch. Naturgesch., 11: 169. Type(s): Not designated; MHNN 90.77 is a type according to museum records. Type locality: "Republica Peruana"; given as "in den Montañas von Monobamba", Peru according to Tschudi, 1846 "1845", Untersuch. Fauna Peruana, Herpetol.: 75.

Bufo molitor Tschudi, 1845, Arch. Naturgesch., 11: 169. Types not designated but MHNN 90.87 according to museum records and presumably including frog illustrated by Tschudi, 1846 "1845", Untersuch. Fauna Peruana, Herpetol.: pl. 12. Type locality: "Republica Peruana"; given as "in den peruanischen Wäldern" by Tschudi, 1846 "1845", Untersuch. Fauna Peruana, Herpetol.: 75. Synonymy by Peters, 1873, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1873: 624; Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 138. Stejneger IN Barbour, 1920, Am. Nat., 54: 286; Cochran and Goin, 1970, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 288: 105, considered this a synonym of Bufo marinus. Andersson, 1900, Bih. K. Svenska Vetensk. Akad. Handl., 26: 18, considered this synonymous with Bufo andianus Cope and Rana marginata Linnaeus.

Docidophryne LazarusFitzinger, 1861 "1860", Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 42: 415.

Phrynoidis aguaCope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 358.

Phrynoidis molitorCope, 1862, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 14: 358.

Bufo andianus Cope, 1868, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 20: 115. Syntypes: USNM 4350 and 6112 (3 specimens), lost; not mentioned in USNM type list of Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220. Type locality: "Carthagena, New Grenada [= Colombia]". Synonymy (with Bufo molitor) by Peters, 1873, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1873: 624; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 315; (with Bufo poeppigii) by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 138. Thought by some authors (e.g., Peters, 1873, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1873: 623; Easteal, 1986, Cat. Am. Amph. Rept., 395: 1) to be a junior synonym of Bufo marinus.

Bufo marinus andinensis Melin, 1941, Göteborgs K. Vetensk. Vitterh. Samh. Handl., Ser. B, 1: 14. Syntypes: 4 specimens, including NHMG 457 (2 specimens), according to museum records. Type locality: "Roque, Peru".

Bufo marinus poeppigiMertens, 1952, in Titschacke (ed.), Beiträge von Fauna Perus, 3: 259; Vellard, 1959, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 8: 35; Cei, Erspamer, and Roseghini, 1968, Syst. Zool., 17: 239; Henle, 1985, Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ., 20: 167-173.

Bufo poeppigiiDuellman and Schulte, 1992, Copeia, 1992: 168.

Chaunus poeppigiiFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364; Savage and Bolaños, 2009, Zootaxa, 2005: 4, by implication.

Rhinella poeppigiiChaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 211, by implication; Pramuk, Robertson, Sites, and Noonan, 2008, Global Ecol. Biogeograph., 17: 76.

English Names

Gray Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43).

Distribution

Montane cloud forests on the eastern Andean slopes of Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia, 800–1670 m; reported from the Serranía de Sira in Amazonian Peru and Assis Brasil, in the state of Acre, Brazil. See comment. 

Comment

In the Bufo marinus group of Blair, 1972, Evol. Genus Bufo: 345. The synonymy of Bufo poeppigi with Bufo marinus (most recently by Henle, 1985, Stud. Neotrop. Fauna Environ., 20: 167-173), was rejected by Duellman and Schulte, 1992, Copeia, 1992: 162-172. Chaunus poeppigii had been considered a subspecies of Bufo marinus by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 81. Not occurring in Colombia according to Ruiz-Carranza, Ardila-Robayo, and Lynch, 1996, Rev. Acad. Colomb. Cienc. Exact. Fis. Nat., 20: 368. See brief account by Köhler, 2000, Bonn. Zool. Monogr., 48: 85-86. De la Riva, 2002, Graellsia, 58: 49-57, discussed the validity and distinctiveness of this species with respect to the similar Bufo marinus. Kwet, Di-Bernardo, and Maneyro, 2006, Iheringia, Zool., 96: 479-485, provided a key to distinguish this species from other members of the Rhinella marina group. Maciel, Garcia, Colli, and Schwartz, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 57: 787-797, reported on the molecular phylogenetics of this species, suggesting that it is the sister species of Rhinella schneideri. Venegas and Ron, 2014, Herpetol. Notes, 7: 713–716, reported records for Ecuador and provided a range map. Venâncio, Freitas, Abegg, and Kokubum, 2017, Check List, 13(6): 747–750, reported the species from Assis, Acre, Brazil, and discussed the range. Freitas, Venâncio, Abegg, Azevedo, Pereira, Zanotti, Veloso, Schwarzbach, Oliveira e Sousa, Cruz-da-Silva, Amorim, and Moura, 2020, Herpetol. Notes, 13: 33–48, discussed the species in Estação Ecológica Rio Acre, Assis, Acre, Brazil. In the Rhinella marina clade, Rhinella marina group of Pereyra, Blotto, Baldo, Chaparro, Ron, Elias-Costa, Iglesias, Venegas, Thomé, Ospina-Sarria, Maciel, Rada, Kolenc, Borteiro, Rivera-Correa, Rojas-Runjaic, Moravec, De la Riva, Wheeler, Castroviejo-Fisher, Grant, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2021, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 447: 1–156. Rivera, Prates, Firneno, Rodrigues, Caldwell, and Fujita, 2022 "2021", Mol. Ecol., 31: 978–992, reported on phylogenetics and noted an unnamed species they referred to Rhinella cf. poeppigii from Brazilian east and west Amazonia (of which the eastern sample appeared morphologically to be Rhinella marina). 

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