Rhinella pygmaea (Myers and Carvalho, 1952)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella pygmaea

English Names

Rio Parahyba Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43).


Southeastern coastal Brazil in the states of Rio de Janeiro and Espírito Santo.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Brazil

Endemic: Brazil


See accounts (as Bufo) by Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 197–200. Yanosky, Dixon, and Mercolli, 1993, Bull. Maryland Herpetol. Soc., 29: 160–171, and Yanosky, Dixon, and Mercolli, 1993, Bull. Maryland Herpetol. Soc., 29: 66, reported this species in sympatry with Rhinella fernandezae and Rhinella granulosa. See Rhinella bergi, an Argentinian species formerly confused with Rhinella pygmaea. Izecksohn and Carvalho-e-Silva, 2001, Anf. Municipio Rio de Janeiro: 30, provided a brief account and photo. Silva, Carvalho-e-Silva, and Carvalho-e-Silva, 2007, Herpetol. Rev., 38: 97, provided the record for Espírito Santo. Narvaes and Rodrigues, 2009, Arq. Zool., São Paulo, 40: 1-73, revised the Rhinella granulosa group and provided an account and map. Silveira, Salles, and Pontes, 2009, Check List, 5: 749–752, provided a range extension and commented on and mapped the range. Carvalho, Tolentino, and Giaretta, 2013, Herpetol. Notes, 6: 229–231, reported the advertisement call. Oliveira, Weber, and Napoli, 2014, Herpetol. J., 24: 229–236, reported on larval morphology of the chondrocranium and hypobranchial apparatus. Simon, Machado, and Marroig, 2016, Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. B, Biol. Sci., 283 (20161783): 1–10, reported on skull evolution within the Rhinella granulosa group and provided a dot map. In the Rhinella marina clade, Rhinella granulosa group of Pereyra, Blotto, Baldo, Chaparro, Ron, Elias-Costa, Iglesias, Venegas, Thomé, Ospina-Sarria, Maciel, Rada, Kolenc, Borteiro, Rivera-Correa, Rojas-Runjaic, Moravec, De la Riva, Wheeler, Castroviejo-Fisher, Grant, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2021, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 447: 1–156. Rivera, Prates, Caldwell, Rodrigues, and Fujita, 2022, Heredity, 130: 14–21, reported on mtDNA phylogenetics in the Rhinella granulosa group, including this species.   

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