Rhinella rubescens (Lutz, 1925)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella rubescens

Bufo rufus Garman, 1877 "1876", Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist., 18: 413. Syntypes: MCZ 367-68 (2 specimens), according to Barbour and Loveridge, 1929, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 69: 233. Type locality: "near Goyaz [= city of Goiás], on the highlands of east Brazil" (actually in central Brazil). Primary homonym of Bufo rufus Schneider, 1799 (= Anaxyrus terrestris) according to Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 66.

Bufo rubescens Lutz, 1925, C. R. Mém. Hebd. Séances Soc. Biol. Filial., Paris, 93 (1925, vol. 2): 214. Syntypes: Not stated, but USNM 97236-37 according to Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 37. Type locality: "Bello Horizonte", Minas Gerais, Brazil. Synonymy (under Bufo rufus) by Cochran, 1961, Bull. U.S. Natl. Mus., 220: 37; Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 84; and Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 178.

Bufo rufescensBrazil and Vellard, 1926, Mem. Inst. Butantan, São Paulo, 3: 23. Incorrect subsequent spelling.

Chaunus rubescensFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364. Savage and Bolaños, 2009, Zootaxa, 2005: 4, by implication.

Rhinella rubescensChaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 211, by implication.

English Names

Rusty Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43).

Rufous Toad (Eterovick and Sazima, 2004, Anf. Serra do Cipó: 33).


Cerrado of central Brazil (Mato Grosso do Sul, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Pará, Piaui, and São Paulo).

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Brazil

Endemic: Brazil


In the Bufo marinus group of Martin, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 57, and Blair, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 96, but in the Bufo arenarum group of Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 173–178. Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 66, noted that Bufo rufus Garman is a primary homonym of Bufo rufus Schneider, 1799 (= Bufo terrestris). Removed from the synonymy of Rhinella missionum by Faivovich and Carrizo, 1997, Cuad. Herpetol., 11: 81–82, where it had been placed by Gallardo, 1961, Neotropica, 7: 33–38. Eterovick and Sazima, 1999, J. Herpetol., 33: 711–713, noted the similarity of this species with Rhinella arenarum. See remarks by Lavilla and Cei, 2001, Monogr. Mus. Reg. Sci. Nat. Torino, 28: 27, regarding the nomenclature of the species. Araújo, Condez, and Haddad, 2007, Check List, 3: 153–155, provided the first record for the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Canelas and Bertoluci, 2007, Iheringia, Zool., 97: 21–26, provided a locality in Minas Gerais. Kwet, Di-Bernardo, and Maneyro, 2006, Iheringia, Zool., 96: 479–485, provided a key to distinguish this species from other members of the Rhinella marina group. Eterovick and Sazima, 2004, Anf. Serra do Cipó: 33–34, provided a photograph and brief account. Vallinoto, Sequeira, Sodré, Bernardi, Sampaio, and Schneider, 2010, Zool. Scripta, 39: 128–140, and Maciel, Collevatti, Colli, and Schwartz, 2010, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 57: 787–797, reported on the molecular phylogenetics of the Rhinella marina group, including this species. Cruz, Feio, and Caramaschi, 2009, Anf. Ibitipoca: 62–63, provided photographs and a brief account for Parque Estadual do Ibitipoca, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Aoki, Landgref, Oda, and Gamarra, 2011, Herpetol. Rev., 42: 108, provided a record for Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and commented on the range. Vaz-Silva, Maciel, Nomura, Morais, Guerra Batista, Santos, Andrade, Oliveira, Brandão, and Bastos, 2020, Guia Ident. Anf. Goiás e Dist. Fed. Brasil Central: 26, provided an account for Goiás and the D.F. population, Brazil.. Eterovick, Souza, and Sazima, 2020, Anf. Serra do Cipó: 1–292, provided an account, life history information, and an identification scheme for the Serra de Cipó, Minas Gerais, Brazil. In the Rhinella marina clade, Rhinella marina group of Pereyra, Blotto, Baldo, Chaparro, Ron, Elias-Costa, Iglesias, Venegas, Thomé, Ospina-Sarria, Maciel, Rada, Kolenc, Borteiro, Rivera-Correa, Rojas-Runjaic, Moravec, De la Riva, Wheeler, Castroviejo-Fisher, Grant, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2021, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 447: 1–156. Pezzuti, Leite, Rossa-Feres, and Garcia, 2021, S. Am. J. Herpetol., 22 (Special Issue): 1–109, described larval morphology and natural history, and provides a key to the larvae of southernmost portion of the Espinhaço Range, southeastern Brazil. 

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