Rhinella rubropunctata (Guichenot, 1848)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella rubropunctata

Bufo rubro-punctatus Guichenot, 1848, in Gay (ed.), Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile, Zool., 2: 128. Type(s): Not designated or known to exist. Type locality: "en los bosques húmedos de la provincia de Valdivia" (= wet forests of Valdivia Province), Chile.

Phryne rubropunctataFitzinger, 1861 "1860", Sitzungsber. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Phys. Math. Naturwiss. Kl., 42: 415.

Bufo spinulosus var. surda Werner, 1898 "1897", Zool. Jahrb., Jena, Suppl., 4: 277. Types: Presumably ZIUW or NHMW; based on juveniles according to the original description. Type locality: "Quilpué", Chile. Synonymy by Cei, 1962, Batr. Chile: 49; Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 171.

Bufo chiragra Philippi, 1902, Supl. Batr. Chil. Descr. Hist. Fis. Polit. Chile: 34. Types: MNHNC (number of specimens not noted although measurements only provided for one specimen), according to the original publication. Type locality: "Andibus provinciae Cautin", Chile. Considered a nomen dubium by Nieden, 1923, Das Tierreich, 46: 146. Tentative synonymy by Gorham, 1974, Checklist World Amph.: 146. Synonymy (with Bufo spinulosus) by Cei, 1958, Invest. Zool. Chilen., 4: 274. Synonymy (with Bufo spinulosus rubropunctatus) by Cei, 1962 "1961", Invest. Zool. Chilen., 7: 59-81; Cei, 1962, Batr. Chile: 49; Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 171.

Bufo spinulosus rubropunctatusCei, 1962 "1961", Invest. Zool. Chilen., 7: 77.

Bufo arunco rubropunctatusCei, 1962 "1961", Invest. Zool. Chilen., 7: 77.

Bufo rubropunctatusGallardo, 1965, Pap. Avulsos Zool., São Paulo, 17: 64; Cei, 1972 "1971", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 28: 91; Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 171-172.

Chaunus rubropunctatusFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 364. Savage and Bolaños, 2009, Zootaxa, 2005: 4, by implication.

Rhinella rubropunctataChaparro, Pramuk, and Gluesenkamp, 2007, Herpetologica, 63: 211, by implication.

English Names

Red-spotted Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43).


Temperate forests of southern Chile (Valdivia, Llanquihué, Arauco and Cautin provinces); Argentina, in the vicinity of Esquel (Chubut Province) and El Bolsón (Río Negro Province), 200–800 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Argentina, Chile


See account by Gallardo, 1962, Neotropica, 8: 28–30. At times considered a synonym (e.g., Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 302; Schneider, 1936, Comun. Mus. Concepción, 1: 109–112) or subspecies of Rhinella spinulosus (e.g., Cei, 1962, Batr. Chile), but currently considered a distinct species (see Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 171). Formas and Veloso, 1982, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington, 95: 688, and Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 66, rejected the synonymy of Bufo venustus Philippi, 1902, made by Cei, 1980, Monit. Zool. Ital., N.S., Monogr., 2: 172, considering this to be Telmatobufo venustus. See Cei, 1962, Batr. Chile: 49–50 (as Bufo spinulosus rubropunctatus). See photograph, map, description of geographic range and habitat, and conservation status (as Bufo rubropunctatus) in Stuart, Hoffmann, Chanson, Cox, Berridge, Ramani, and Young, 2008, Threatened Amph. World: 190.See Lobos, Vidal-Maldonado, Correa-Quezada, Labra-Lillo, Díaz-Páez, Charrier, Rabanal, Díaz-Vidal, and Tala, 2013, Anf. Chile Conserv. 1–104, for photograph, comments on conservation status, and range. In the Rhinella marina clade, Rhinella arunco group of  Pereyra, Blotto, Baldo, Chaparro, Ron, Elias-Costa, Iglesias, Venegas, Thomé, Ospina-Sarria, Maciel, Rada, Kolenc, Borteiro, Rivera-Correa, Rojas-Runjaic, Moravec, De la Riva, Wheeler, Castroviejo-Fisher, Grant, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2021, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 447: 1–156, who reported on molecular and morphological phylogenetics. 

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