Rhinella trifolium (Tschudi, 1845)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Rhinella > Species: Rhinella trifolium

Bufo trifolium Tschudi, 1845, Arch. Naturgesch., 11: 169. Type(s): Not designated, but presumably in MHNN and presumably including the frog illustrated by Tschudi, 1846 "1845", Untersuch. Fauna Peruana, Herpetol.: pl. 11, fig. 3. Type locality: "Republica Peruana"; given as "Ceja- als in der Waldregion", Peru by Tschudi, 1846 "1845", Untersuch. Fauna Peruana, Herpetol.: 75. Synonymy by Peters, 1873, Monatsber. Preuss. Akad. Wiss. Berlin, 1873: 622-624; Boulenger, 1882, Cat. Batr. Sal. Coll. Brit. Mus., Ed. 2: 302; Lavilla, 1994 "1992", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 42: 67; Haas, 2002, Salamandra, 38: 155; Pramuk and Kadivar, 2003, Herpetologica, 59: 271.

Bufo spinulosus trifolium — Shreve, 1941, Proc. New England Zool. Club, 18: 76; Vellard, 1959, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 8: 22.

Bufo spinulosus flavolineatus Vellard, 1959, Mem. Mus. Hist. Nat. Javier Prado, 8: 25. Syntypes: MUSM (formerly MHNJP) 279 (5 specimens); MUSM (formerly MHNJP) 3898 (renumbered) designated lectotype by Morales, Carrillo, and Ortega, 1990, Publ. Mus. Hist. Nat. Univ. Nac. Mayor San Marcos, 33: 2. Type locality: "Capillacocha", Estado de Junín", Peru. Córdova, 1999, Stuttgart. Beit. Naturkd., Ser. A—Biol., 600: 1-28, doubted the distinctiveness of this taxon from Bufo spinulosus. Synonymy with Bufo spinulosus by Pramuk and Kadivar, 2003, Herpetologica, 59: 271; with Rhinella trifolium by  Pereyra, Blotto, Baldo, Chaparro, Ron, Elias-Costa, Iglesias, Venegas, Thomé, Ospina-Sarria, Maciel, Rada, Kolenc, Borteiro, Rivera-Correa, Rojas-Runjaic, Moravec, De la Riva, Wheeler, Castroviejo-Fisher, Grant, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2021, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 447: 47.

Bufo trifolium — Cei, Erspamer, and Roseghini, 1968, Syst. Zool., 17: 237; Cei, 1972 "1971", Acta Zool. Lilloana, 28: 91.

Bufo flavolineatus — Cei, 1972, in Blair (ed.), Evol. Genus Bufo: 83.

Rhinella trifolium — Vera Candioti, Grosso, Pereyra, Haad, Lescano, Siu-Ting, Aguilar, and Baldo, 2020, Herpetol. Monogr., 34: 116;  Pereyra, Blotto, Baldo, Chaparro, Ron, Elias-Costa, Iglesias, Venegas, Thomé, Ospina-Sarria, Maciel, Rada, Kolenc, Borteiro, Rivera-Correa, Rojas-Runjaic, Moravec, De la Riva, Wheeler, Castroviejo-Fisher, Grant, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2021, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 447: 47.  

English Names

Huanuco Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 43).

Capillococha Toad (Bufo spinulosus flavolineatus [no longer recognized]: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 41).

Distribution

Central Andean wet puna of Peru. 

Comment

 Vera Candioti, Grosso, Pereyra, Haad, Lescano, Siu-Ting, Aguilar, and Baldo, 2020, Herpetol. Monogr., 34: 116–130, reported on larval morphology and recognized this species in the Rhinella spinulosa group. In the Rhinella marina clade, Rhinella spinulosa group of Pereyra, Blotto, Baldo, Chaparro, Ron, Elias-Costa, Iglesias, Venegas, Thomé, Ospina-Sarria, Maciel, Rada, Kolenc, Borteiro, Rivera-Correa, Rojas-Runjaic, Moravec, De la Riva, Wheeler, Castroviejo-Fisher, Grant, Haddad, and Faivovich, 2021, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 447: 1–156. 

External links:

Please note: these links will take you to external websites not affiliated with the American Museum of Natural History. We are not responsible for their content.