Sclerophrys xeros (Tandy, Tandy, Keith, and Duff-MacKay, 1976)

Class: Amphibia > Order: Anura > Family: Bufonidae > Genus: Sclerophrys > Species: Sclerophrys xeros

Bufo xeros Tandy, Tandy, Keith, and Duff-MacKay, 1976, Pearce-Sellards Ser., 24: 3. Holotype: TNHC 39376, by original designation. Type locality: "Ghinda, Eritrea, Ethiopia, station 32, 15° 26′ N 39° 05′ E, altitude 940 m."

Bufo wazae Hulselmans, 1977, Rev. Zool. Bot. Afr., 91: 512. Holotype: MRAC (formerly Missions Zoologiques Belges au Cameroun 2-99), by original designation. Type locality: "Waza (Cameroon)". Synonymy by Hulselmans, in addendum, although he suggested some differences between the eastern populations (Bufo wazae) and the western populations.

Amietophrynus xerosFrost, Grant, Faivovich, Bain, Haas, Haddad, de Sá, Channing, Wilkinson, Donnellan, Raxworthy, Campbell, Blotto, Moler, Drewes, Nussbaum, Lynch, Green, and Wheeler, 2006, Bull. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 297: 363.

Sclerophrys xeros Ohler and Dubois, 2016, PeerJ, 4(e1553): 10. 

English Names

Subsaharan Toad (Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 44).

Waza Toad (Bufo wazae: Frank and Ramus, 1995, Compl. Guide Scient. Common Names Amph. Rept. World: 44).

Savannah Toad (Barnett, Emms, and Santoni, 2001, Herpetol. Bull., London, 77: 7).

Desert Toad (Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 100).

Sub-desert Toad (Largen and Spawls, 2010, Amph. Rept. Ethiopia Eritrea: 86).


Subsaharan Africa from southern Western Sahara, Mauritania, Gambia, and Senegal and south to northern Cameroon and east through Mali, Niger, central Chad, central Sudan and northern and eastern Ethiopia and southern Eritrea, Djibouti, southern Somalia, northern and eastern Kenya (possibly into southeastern South Sudan), northeastern Uganda, and eastern Tanzania, with an isolated population in the Hoggar and Tassili'n Mountains of southern Algeria and in southwestern Libya, 200-1800 m elevation.

Geographic Occurrence

Natural Resident: Algeria, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Kenya, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Western Sahara

Likely/Controversially Present: Guinea-Bissau, Nigeria


In the Bufo regularis group according to the original publication. See Salvador, 1996, Smithson. Herpetol. Inform. Serv., 109, for account. See Largen, 1997, Tropical Zool., 10: 69, for East African distribution. See Géniez, Mateo, and Bons, 2001 "2000", Herpetozoa, Wien, 13: 151, for Western Sahara record. Rödel, 2000, Herpetofauna W. Afr., 1: 60-62, provided an account. Gambia record provided by Barnett, Emms, and Santoni, 2001, Herpetol. Bull., London, 77: 7. See Largen, 2001, Tropical Zool., 14: 320-321, for comments on distribution. Channing and Howell, 2006, Amph. E. Afr.: 100-101, and Pickersgill, 2007, Frog Search: 539-541, provided accounts. Padial and De la Riva, 2004, Rev. Esp. Herpetol., 18: 91, provided records from Mauritania. Wanger, 2005, Salamandra, 41: 27-33, provided Gambia records, as did Emms, Jambang, Bah, Mankali, Rödel, and Barnett, 2005, Herpetol. Bull., London, 94: 6-16. Géniez, Mateo, Geniez, and Pether, 2004, Amph. Rept. W. Sahara: 38, provided a brief account for Western Sahara. Ibrahim, 2008, Acta Herpetol., Firenze, 3: 35-49, reported the species from southwestern Libya. Froufe, Brito, and Harris, 2009, Afr. Zool., 44: 208-215, reported on phylogeography among populations in the Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, and Niger section of the range, discussed analytical anomalies between the studies of Pramuk, 2006, Zool. J. Linn. Soc., 146: 407-452, and Cunningham and Cherry, 2004, Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 32: 671-685. Channing, Rödel, and Channing, 2012, Tadpoles of Africa: 139, reported on comparative tadpole morphology. Harper, Measey, Patrick, Menegon, and Vonesh, 2010, Field Guide Amph. E. Arc Mts. Tanzania and Kenya: 114–115, provided a brief account. Reques, Pleguezuelos, Busack, and de Pous, 2013, Basic & Appl. Herpetol., 27: 23–50, discussed the range and conservation status in Western Sahara. See detailed account by Escoriza and Ben Hassine, 2019, Amph. N. Afr.: 178–182. Padial, Crochet, Géniez, and Brito, 2013, Basic & Appl. Herpetol., 27: 11–22, discussed systematics, distribution, and conservation status in Mauritania. Ibrahim, 2013, Basic & Appl. Herpetol., 27: 101–106, discussed ranges and population status in Libya. Mateo, Géniez, and Pether, 2013, Basic & Appl. Herpetol., 27: 51–83, provided a range map, comments on the range and population status in Algeria. Spawls, Wasonga, and Drewes, 2019, Amph. Kenya: 12, provided a range map for Kenya, photograph, and brief characterization. Channing and Rödel, 2019, Field Guide Frogs & Other Amph. Afr.: 68–69, provided a brief account, photograph, and range map. Ayoro, Segniagbeto, Hema, Penner, Oueda, Dubois, Rödel, Kabré, and Ohler, 2020, Zoosystema, 42: 547–582, discussed records, identification, and habitat in Burkina Faso. Discussion of range in Libya provided by Blackburn, Nielsen, and Jdeidi, 2022, Herpetol. Rev., 53: 211–219. Pagano, Daf, Ballouche, Taïbi, and Sinsch, 2022, Salamandra, 58: 317–322, reported on the advertisement call from  Diawling National Park, southwestern Mauritania.  

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